214 research outputs found

### Stationary structures of irrotational binary systems -- models for close binary systems of compact stars

We propose a new numerical method to calculate irrotational binary systems
composed of compressible gaseous stars in Newtonian gravity. Assuming
irrotationality, i.e. vanishing of the vorticity vector everywhere in the star
in the inertial frame, we can introduce the velocity potential for the flow
field. Using this velocity potential we can derive a set of basic equations for
stationary states which consist of (i) the generalized Bernoulli equation, (ii)
the Poisson equation for the Newtonian gravitational potential and (iii) the
equation for the velocity potential with the Neumann type boundary condition.
We succeeded in developing a new code to compute numerically exact solutions to
these equations for the first time. Such irrotational configurations of binary
systems are appropriate models for realistic neutron star binaries composed of
inviscid gases, just prior to coalescence of two stars caused by emission of
gravitational waves. Accuracies of our numerical solutions are so high that we
can compute reliable models for fully deformed final stationary configurations
and hence determine the inner most stable circular orbit of binary neutron star
systems under the approximations of weak gravity and inviscid limit.Comment: 32 pages, 25 bitmapped ps files, to appear in ApJ supplemen

### Quasi-radial modes of rotating stars in general relativity

By using the Cowling approximation, quasi-radial modes of rotating general
relativistic stars are computed along equilibrium sequences from non-rotating
to maximally rotating models. The eigenfrequencies of these modes are
decreasing functions of the rotational frequency. The eigenfrequency curve of
each mode as a function of the rotational frequency has discontinuities, which
arise from the avoided crossing with other curves of axisymmetric modes.Comment: 7 pages, 10 figures, submitted to MNRAS. (revisions: new results are
presented

### Multi-Dimensional Astrophysical Structural and Dynamical Analysis I. Development of a Nonlinear Finite Element Approach

A new field of numerical astrophysics is introduced which addresses the
solution of large, multidimensional structural or slowly-evolving problems
(rotating stars, interacting binaries, thick advective accretion disks, four
dimensional spacetimes, etc.). The technique employed is the Finite Element
Method (FEM), commonly used to solve engineering structural problems. The
approach developed herein has the following key features:
1. The computational mesh can extend into the time dimension, as well as
space, perhaps only a few cells, or throughout spacetime.
2. Virtually all equations describing the astrophysics of continuous media,
including the field equations, can be written in a compact form similar to that
routinely solved by most engineering finite element codes.
3. The transformations that occur naturally in the four-dimensional FEM
possess both coordinate and boost features, such that
(a) although the computational mesh may have a complex, non-analytic,
curvilinear structure, the physical equations still can be written in a simple
coordinate system independent of the mesh geometry.
(b) if the mesh has a complex flow velocity with respect to coordinate space,
the transformations will form the proper arbitrary Lagrangian- Eulerian
advective derivatives automatically.
4. The complex difference equations on the arbitrary curvilinear grid are
generated automatically from encoded differential equations.
This first paper concentrates on developing a robust and widely-applicable
set of techniques using the nonlinear FEM and presents some examples.Comment: 28 pages, 9 figures; added integral boundary conditions, allowing
very rapidly-rotating stars; accepted for publication in Ap.

### Pattern Matching and Discourse Processing in Information Extraction from Japanese Text

Information extraction is the task of automatically picking up information of
interest from an unconstrained text. Information of interest is usually
extracted in two steps. First, sentence level processing locates relevant
pieces of information scattered throughout the text; second, discourse
processing merges coreferential information to generate the output. In the
first step, pieces of information are locally identified without recognizing
any relationships among them. A key word search or simple pattern search can
achieve this purpose. The second step requires deeper knowledge in order to
understand relationships among separately identified pieces of information.
Previous information extraction systems focused on the first step, partly
because they were not required to link up each piece of information with other
pieces. To link the extracted pieces of information and map them onto a
structured output format, complex discourse processing is essential. This paper
reports on a Japanese information extraction system that merges information
using a pattern matcher and discourse processor. Evaluation results show a high
level of system performance which approaches human performance.Comment: See http://www.jair.org/ for any accompanying file

### Dynamical instability of differentially rotating stars

We study the dynamical instability against bar-mode deformation of
differentially rotating stars. We performed numerical simulation and linear
perturbation analysis adopting polytropic equations of state with the
polytropic index $n=1$. It is found that rotating stars of a high degree of
differential rotation are dynamically unstable even for the ratio of the
kinetic energy to the gravitational potential energy of $O(0.01)$.
Gravitational waves from the final nonaxisymmetric quasistationary states are
calculated in the quadrupole formula. For rotating stars of mass $1.4M_{\odot}$
and radius several 10 km, gravitational waves have frequency several 100 Hz and
effective amplitude $\sim 5 \times 10^{-22}$ at a distance of $\sim 100$ Mpc.Comment: 5 pages, 7 figures, accepted for publication in MNRA

### Possible evolutionary transition from rapidly rotating neutron stars to strange stars due to spin-down

We present a scenario of formation of strange stars due to spin-down of {\it
rapidly rotating} neutron stars left after supernova explosions . By assuming a
process where the total baryon mass is conserved but the angular momentum is
lost due to emission of gravitational waves and/or the magnetic braking, we
find that the transition from rapidly rotating neutron stars to slowly rotating
strange stars is possible; a large amount of energy $\sim 10^{53} ergs$ could
be released. The liberated energy might become a new energy source for a
delayed explosion of supernova. Furthermore, our scenario suggests that the
supernova associated with gamma-ray bursts could become candidates for targets
in the future observation of gravitational waves.Comment: 11 pages, 3 figures, Received November 5, 200

### Analytical approximation for the structure of differentially rotating barotropes

Approximate analytical formula for density distribution in differentially
rotating stars is derived. Any barotropic EOS and conservative rotation law can
be handled with use of this method for wide range of differential rotation
strength. Results are in good qualitative agreement with comparison to the
other methods. Some applications are suggested and possible improvements of the
formula are discussed.Comment: 10 pages, 13 figures, accepted for publication in Monthly Notice

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