267 research outputs found

    Fluorescence in situ hybridisation detection of Lactobacillus plantarum group on olives to be used in natural fermentations

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    At present there are very few studies on the bacterial diversity of olives and on the importance of the microbial species for the fermentation of olives aimed to table olives production. Most of the authors report on the occurrence of Lactobacillus plantarum as principal member of these communities or at least as the species responsible for the fermentation. In this study, fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with 16S rRNA probes was used to evaluate the occurrence of L. plantarum in olives. A 18-bp oligonucleotide probe was used in FISH experiments to evaluate the specificity of detection among Lactobacillus species. The probe was tested against 30 Lactobacillus species and appeared to be specific for L. plantarum, L. paraplantarum and L. pentosus. The probe was then used to investigate the occurrence of these species in 25 samples of olives (cultivar “Leccino”) collected in Campania region (Southern Italy). The olives were washed in a saline solution and the suspensions were then analysed by FISH and observed by fluorescence microscopy. No hybridisation signal was detected in at least 30 fields of observation when the L. plantarum-specific probe was used, probably due to the low sensitivity of the FISH method. Olive samples were plated on Rogosa agar and about 40% of the samples did not give growth after 5 days. When colony growth was observed, bulk cells from Rogosa agar plates were collected and analysed by DNA extraction followed by 16S rDNA Polymerase chain reaction–denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR–DGGE). The different microbial species were identified by direct sequencing of DGGE bands. Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides was the most frequently found species, occurring in more than 50% of the samples that had shown growth on Rogosa agar. The closest relatives of the species of the genera: Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Pseudomonas and Raoultella were also identified suggesting that guided fermentation by using selected LAB starters is advisable for a safe and desired table olives production

    Selection of Lactobacillus strains from fermented sausages for their potential use as probiotics.

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    A rapid screening method was used to isolate potentially probiotic Lactobacillus strains from fermented sausages after enrichment in MRS broth at pH 2.5 followed by bile salt stressing (1% bile salts w/v). One hundred and fifty acid- and bile-resistant strains were selected, avoiding preliminary and time-consuming isolation steps. Strains were further characterized for survival at pH 2.5 for 3 h in phosphate-buffered saline and for growth in the presence of 0.3% bile salts with and without pre-exposure at low pH. Twentyeight strains showed a survival >80% at pH 2.5 for 3 h; moreover, most of the strains were able to grow in the presence of 0.3% bile salts. Low pH and bile resistance was shown to be dependent on both the species, identified by phenotypic and molecular methods, and the strain tested. This is the first report on the direct selection of potentially probiotic lactobacilli from dry fermented sausages. Technologically interesting strains may be used in the future as probiotic starter cultures for novel fermented sausage manufacture

    Newly Explored Faecalibacterium Diversity Is Connected to Age, Lifestyle, Geography, and Disease

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    Faecalibacterium is prevalent in the human gut and a promising microbe for the development of next-generation probiotics (NGPs) or biotherapeutics. Analyzing reference Faecalibacterium genomes and almost 3,000 Faecalibacterium-like metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) reconstructed from 7,907 human and 203 non-human primate gut metagenomes, we identified the presence of 22 different Faecalibacterium-like species-level genome bins (SGBs), some further divided in different strains according to the subject geographical origin. Twelve SGBs are globally spread in the human gut and show different genomic potential in the utilization of complex polysaccharides, suggesting that higher SGB diversity may be related with increased utilization of plant-based foods. Moreover, up to 11 different species may co-occur in the same subject, with lower diversity in Western populations, as well as intestinal inflammatory states and obesity. The newly explored Faecalibacterium diversity will be able to support the choice of strains suitable as NGPs, guided by the consideration of the differences existing in their functional potential

    P3-21 Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis PT4 Planktonic and Sessile Cells on Stainless Steel Surface Provides New Insights in Protein Determinants Involved in the Maintenance of a Biofilm community

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    In order to better understand the cellular mechanisms sustaining a surface-associated lifestyle of S. Enteritidis in food related environments, the differential protein patterns of this bacterium cultivated as biofilm on SS versus planktonic mode were comparatively studied in the present work

    Prevotella diversity, niches and interactions with the human host

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    The genus Prevotella includes more than 50 characterized species that occur in varied natural habitats, although most Prevotella spp. are associated with humans. In the human microbiome, Prevotella spp. are highly abundant in various body sites, where they are key players in the balance between health and disease. Host factors related to diet, lifestyle and geography are fundamental in affecting the diversity and prevalence of Prevotella species and strains in the human microbiome. These factors, along with the ecological relationship of Prevotella with other members of the microbiome, likely determine the extent of the contribution of Prevotella to human metabolism and health. Here we review the diversity, prevalence and potential connection of Prevotella spp. in the human host, highlighting how genomic methods and analysis have improved and should further help in framing their ecological role. We also provide suggestions for future research to improve understanding of the possible functions of Prevotella spp. and the effects of the Western lifestyle and diet on the host-Prevotella symbiotic relationship in the context of maintaining human health

    Host phenotype classification from human microbiome data is mainly driven by the presence of microbial taxa

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    Machine learning-based classification approaches are widely used to predict host phenotypes from microbiome data. Classifiers are typically employed by considering operational taxonomic units or relative abundance profiles as input features. Such types of data are intrinsically sparse, which opens the opportunity to make predictions from the presence/absence rather than the relative abundance of microbial taxa. This also poses the question whether it is the presence rather than the abundance of particular taxa to be relevant for discrimination purposes, an aspect that has been so far overlooked in the literature. In this paper, we aim at filling this gap by performing a meta-analysis on 4,128 publicly available metagenomes associated with multiple case-control studies. At species-level taxonomic resolution, we show that it is the presence rather than the relative abundance of specific microbial taxa to be important when building classification models. Such findings are robust to the choice of the classifier and confirmed by statistical tests applied to identifying differentially abundant/present taxa. Results are further confirmed at coarser taxonomic resolutions and validated on 4,026 additional 16S rRNA samples coming from 30 public case-control studies

    Metatranscriptomics reveals temperature-driven functional changes in microbiome impacting cheese maturation rate

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    © The Author(s), 2016. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Scientific Reports 6 (2016): 21871, doi:10.1038/srep21871.Traditional cheeses harbour complex microbial consortia that play an important role in shaping typical sensorial properties. However, the microbial metabolism is considered difficult to control. Microbial community succession and the related gene expression were analysed during ripening of a traditional Italian cheese, identifying parameters that could be modified to accelerate ripening. Afterwards, we modulated ripening conditions and observed consistent changes in microbial community structure and function. We provide concrete evidence of the essential contribution of non-starter lactic acid bacteria in ripening-related activities. An increase in the ripening temperature promoted the expression of genes related to proteolysis, lipolysis and amino acid/lipid catabolism and significantly increases the cheese maturation rate. Moreover, temperature-promoted microbial metabolisms were consistent with the metabolomic profiles of proteins and volatile organic compounds in the cheese. The results clearly indicate how processing-driven microbiome responses can be modulated in order to optimize production efficiency and product quality.F.D.F. was supported by a grant from Regione Campania within the program “POR CAMPANIA FSE 2007/2013” - project CARINA (Safety sustainability and competitiveness of the agro-food production in Campania) – CUP B25B09000080007

    Dietary Interventions to Modulate the Gut Microbiome-How Far Away Are We From Precision Medicine

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    The importance of the gut microbiome in human health and disease is fully acknowledged. A perturbation in the equilibrium among the different microbial populations living in the gut (dysbiosis) has been associated with the development of several types of diseases. Modulation of the gut microbiome through dietary intervention is an emerging therapeutic and preventive strategy for many conditions. Nevertheless, interpersonal differences in response to therapeutic treatments or dietary regimens are often observed during clinical trials, and recent research has suggested that subject-specific features of the gut microbiota may be responsible. In this review, we summarize recent findings in personalized nutrition, highlighting how individualized characterization of the microbiome may assist in designing ad hoc tailored dietary intervention for disease treatment and prevention. Moreover, we discuss the limitations and challenges encountered in integrating patient-specific microbial data into clinical practice

    Prev Chronic Dis

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    Improving population health is not simple. Many instruments are available for changing behavior and consequent outcomes. However, the following basic principles should guide development of any incentive arrangement: 1) identify the desired outcome, 2) identify the behavior change that will lead to this outcome, 3) determine the potential effectiveness of the incentive in achieving the behavior change, 4) link a financial incentive directly to this outcome or behavior, 5) identify the possible adverse effects of the incentive, and 6) evaluate and report changes in the behavior or outcome in response to the incentive. A wide range of financial and nonfinancial incentives is available to encourage efficient behaviors and discourage costly and unproductive ones. Evidence for the beneficial effects of incentive programs has been slow to emerge, partly because such evidence must show how behaviors have changed because of the incentive. Nevertheless, the potential for incentive programs in health care seems large, and research should support their design and assess their effect
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