483 research outputs found

    In the shadow of the ICC: Colombia and international criminal justice

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    The report of the expert conference examining the nature and dynamics of the role of the International Criminal Court in the ongoing investigation and prosecution of atrocious crimes committed in Colombia. Convened by the Human Rights Consortium, the Institute of Commonwealth Studies and the Institute for the Study of the Americas at the School of Advanced Study, University of London University of London, 26–27 May 2011

    Circuitry Components In Gaming Controllers: How do video game controllers measure user inputs?

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    [excerpt] Video games rely upon gaming controllers in order to function properly. For a user to interact with a game as intended, each input must be measured and transmitted to the gaming system accurately. There are three main types of gaming controller inputs: standard push buttons, pressure sensitive buttons, and analog sticks. Each type of input requires unique circuitry to be measured and transmitted accuratel

    Civil Rights Paradox? Lawyers and Educational Equity

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    Agencies as Litigation Gatekeepers

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    Digital Civil Procedure

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    Public Regulation of Private Enforcement: Empirical Analysis of DOJ Oversight of Qui Tam Litigation Under the False Claims Act

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    In recent years, a growing chorus of commentators has called on Congress to vest agencies with litigation “gatekeeper” authority across a range of regulatory areas, from civil rights and antitrust to financial and securities regulation. Agencies, it is said, can rationalize private enforcement regimes through the power to evaluate lawsuits on a case-bycase basis, blocking bad cases, aiding good ones, and otherwise husbanding private enforcement capacity in ways that conserve scarce public resources for other uses. Yet there exists strikingly little theory or evidence on how agency gatekeeper authority might work in practice. This Article begins to fill that gap by offering the first systematic study of an often invoked but little studied example: Department of Justice (DOJ) oversight of qui tam litigation brought pursuant to the False Claims Act (FCA). Using an original dataset encompassing some 4000 qui tam lawsuits filed between 1986 and 2011, this Article offers evidence on numerous issues that have occupied recent judicial, scholarly, and popular debate, including the extent to which DOJ utilizes its various oversight tools, the mix of factors that drives DOJ intervention decisions, and whether DOJ’s seemingly powerful impact on case outcomes can be ascribed to its merits-screening or meritsmaking role. The analysis mostly rejects heated claims that DOJ decisionmaking has a partisan political cast or is unconnected to case merit. At the same time, however, it uncovers substantial evidence that DOJ makes case decisions strategically, separate and apart from pure merits considerations, in response to simple resource constraints, judicial threats to its ability to police collusive relator–defendant settlements, and the identity (and corporate power) of the defendant. These findings have important implications for judicial evaluation of qui tam suits as well as leading FCA reform proposals. More broadly, the analysis opens up new theoretical and empirical avenues for thinking about optimal regulatory design at the border of litigation and administration, with applications well beyond the FCA

    Digital Civil Procedure

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    The Roles of Buddhist Temples in the Treatment of HIV/AIDS in Thailand

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    Although efforts are being made to decrease the number of new HIV infections in Thailand, less support is give to the growing population that is already affected by the disease. This qualitative study explores the roles of Buddhist temples in the treatment of AIDS in Thailand, specifically the perspectives of both Buddhist monks and persons who are living with AIDS on HIVIAIDS and the care provided at the temples. Three major themes were derived from the interviews: (1) temple as a last choice; (2) temple as a support group; and (3) the role of Buddhism and monks at the temple

    Regulation of the Uropathogenic Escherichia coli tos Operon and Its Implications for an Expansion of Microbial Reciprocal Regulation Between Adherence- and Motility-Related Genes.

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    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections and are commonly caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). UPEC do not have a fixed set of virulence and fitness factors. Instead, UPEC strains use a variety of these factors to establish infection. There are also a number of genetic networks connecting UPEC virulence and fitness genes. One network is the reciprocal regulation network connecting E. coli motility- and adhesin-encoding genes. For instance, when adhesin genes are expressed, motility genes are repressed, and when motility genes are expressed, adhesin genes are repressed. UPEC strain CFT073 also harbors the tos operon, which encodes the regulatory, secretion, and adherence machinery of a repeats-in-toxin (RTX) nonfimbrial adhesin, TosA (for type one secretion protein A). This adhesin promotes UPEC adherence to host cells derived from the upper urinary tract and is expressed primarily in vivo. Little else was known about tos operon expression. I hypothesized that regulators encoded in the tos operon, regulators encoded elsewhere in the E. coli genome, and environmental conditions encountered in the urinary tract mediate tos operon expression. It is also my hypothesis that reciprocal regulation of adhesin- and motility-related genes is part of tos operon regulation, and regulators encoded in the tos operon are part of this network. Using a variety of in vitro approaches, I identified that TosR, a member of the PapB family, is a tos operon dual positive and negative regulator. In addition, the tos operon promoter, Ptos, is upstream of tosR, and there are at least two TosR binding sites in the vicinity of Ptos. Nucleoid-associated proteins H-NS and Lrp, both associated with adherence and motility reciprocal regulation, function in negative and positive regulation of the tos operon, respectively. Leucine inhibits tos operon expression. Therefore, the tos operon is responsive to conditions encountered in vivo (low leucine). TosEF, encoded by the tos operon, suppress motility by inhibiting FliC production, and TosR perturbs adhesin regulation. Thus, tos operon regulation is related to the reciprocal regulation network. My work explains tos operon regulation and expands the knowledge of adhesin- and motility-encoding gene reciprocal regulation.PHDMicrobiology and ImmunologyUniversity of Michigan, Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studieshttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/120660/1/mengstr_1.pd
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