69 research outputs found

    Constructing Camelot: John F. Kennedy and the 1946 Massachusetts special congressional election

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    This is a study targeting the political debut of a great American figurehead. Before he was President, John F. Kennedy was a soft-spoken and shy congressional candidate with little perceived political promise. The 1946 John F. Kennedy congressional campaign was successful because of the unique organization, image, and opportune timing of the congressional race. By obtaining a better understanding of the people, the stories, and the nuances of the Eleventh Congressional District, Kennedy was able to alter his campaign approach and win the election. The Kennedy campaign promoted a candidate who resonated with a large percentage of the electorate and campaign workers mapped out the greatest path to victory within the constraints the district presented. Through hard work, grit, and unwavering dedication, the Kennedy campaign team helped shape a legendary statesman; a leader who defied legend and lived on in American culture years after his assassination

    Treating asthma: is there a place for leukotriene receptor antagonists?

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    SummaryAsthma is a chronic disorder, characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), airway inflammation and airway remodelling. Evidence has been provided for a relationship between pathophysiology, airway inflammation and remodelling. Moreover, these asthma features have been shown to respond to anti-inflammatory therapy. According to current guidelines, monitoring of asthma is predominantly based on symptoms and lung function data. However, these parameters appeared as poor indices for asthma control. Alternatively, asthma control relates well to exacerbations and (anamnestic) surrogate biomarkers of airway inflammation. Hence, appropriate treatment of asthma should primarily target the airway inflammation.According to current guidelines for asthma management, anti-inflammatory therapy with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) is the cornerstone in the treatment of persistent asthma. To further optimize asthma control, add-on therapy with long-acting β2-agonists (LABA) or leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRA) should be combined with low to high doses of ICS. While the first combination focuses on optimal control of symptoms and lung function, the second provides a more complete suppression of the airway inflammation.In this paper we discuss treatment of asthma according to current guidelines versus new insights, addressing practical issues

    Pedagogical Agents for Fostering Question-Asking Skills in Children

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    Question asking is an important tool for constructing academic knowledge, and a self-reinforcing driver of curiosity. However, research has found that question asking is infrequent in the classroom and children's questions are often superficial, lacking deep reasoning. In this work, we developed a pedagogical agent that encourages children to ask divergent-thinking questions, a more complex form of questions that is associated with curiosity. We conducted a study with 95 fifth grade students, who interacted with an agent that encourages either convergent-thinking or divergent-thinking questions. Results showed that both interventions increased the number of divergent-thinking questions and the fluency of question asking, while they did not significantly alter children's perception of curiosity despite their high intrinsic motivation scores. In addition, children's curiosity trait has a mediating effect on question asking under the divergent-thinking agent, suggesting that question-asking interventions must be personalized to each student based on their tendency to be curious.Comment: Accepted at CHI 202

    Controls on Open‐Ocean North Atlantic ΔpCO2 at Seasonal and Interannual Time Scales Are Different

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    The North Atlantic is a substantial sink for anthropogenic CO2. Understanding the mechanisms driving the sink's variability is key to assessing its current state and predicting its potential response to global climate change. Here we apply a time series decomposition technique to satellite and in situ data to examine separately the factors (both biological and nonbiological) that affect the sea‐air CO2 difference (ΔpCO2) on seasonal and interannual time scales. We demonstrate that on seasonal time scales, the subpolar North Atlantic ΔpCO2 signal is predominantly correlated with biological processes, whereas seawater temperature dominates in the subtropics. However, the same factors do not necessarily control ΔpCO2 on interannual time scales. Our results imply that the mechanisms driving seasonal variability in ΔpCO2 cannot necessarily be extrapolated to predict how ΔpCO2, and thus the North Atlantic CO2 sink, may respond to increases in anthropogenic CO2 over longer time scales

    Evaluation of the association of heterozygous germline variants in NTHL1 with breast cancer predisposition: an international multi-center study of 47,180 subjects.

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    Bi-allelic loss-of-function (LoF) variants in the base excision repair (BER) gene NTHL1 cause a high-risk hereditary multi-tumor syndrome that includes breast cancer, but the contribution of heterozygous variants to hereditary breast cancer is unknown. An analysis of 4985 women with breast cancer, enriched for familial features, and 4786 cancer-free women revealed significant enrichment for NTHL1 LoF variants. Immunohistochemistry confirmed reduced NTHL1 expression in tumors from heterozygous carriers but the NTHL1 bi-allelic loss characteristic mutational signature (SBS 30) was not present. The analysis was extended to 27,421 breast cancer cases and 19,759 controls from 10 international studies revealing 138 cases and 93 controls with a heterozygous LoF variant (OR 1.06, 95% CI: 0.82-1.39) and 316 cases and 179 controls with a missense variant (OR 1.31, 95% CI: 1.09-1.57). Missense variants selected for deleterious features by a number of in silico bioinformatic prediction tools or located within the endonuclease III functional domain showed a stronger association with breast cancer. Somatic sequencing of breast cancers from carriers indicated that the risk associated with NTHL1 appears to operate through haploinsufficiency, consistent with other described low-penetrance breast cancer genes. Data from this very large international multicenter study suggests that heterozygous pathogenic germline coding variants in NTHL1 may be associated with low- to moderate- increased risk of breast cancer

    RNAcentral : a hub of information for non-coding RNA sequences

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    RNAcentral is a comprehensive database of non-coding RNA (ncRNA) sequences, collating information on ncRNA sequences of all types from a broad range of organisms. We have recently added a new genome mapping pipeline that identifies genomic locations for ncRNA sequences in 296 species. We have also added several new types of functional annotations, such as tRNA secondary structures, Gene Ontology annotations, and miRNA-target interactions. A new quality control mechanism based on Rfam family assignments identifies potential contamination, incomplete sequences, and more. The RNAcentral database has become a vital component of many workflows in the RNA community, serving as both the primary source of sequence data for academic and commercial groups, as well as a source of stable accessions for the annotation of genomic and functional features. These examples are facilitated by an improved RNAcentral web interface, which features an updated genome browser, a new sequence feature viewer, and improved text search functionality. RNAcentral is freely available at https://rnacentral.org