1,567 research outputs found

    The Optical Polarization Properties of X-ray Selected BL Lacertae Objects

    Full text link
    We discuss the optical polarization properties of X-ray selected BL Lacertae objects (XSBLs) as determined from three years of monitoring 37 BL Lac objects and candidates. The observed objects include a complete X-ray flux limited sample drawn from the EMS Survey. The majority of the XSBLs classi- fied solely on the appearance of their spectra are members of the class of BL~Lacs since they possess intrinsically polarized and variable continua. The duty cycle of polarized emission from XSBLs is 40\%. The majority of XSBLs (85\approx 85\%) have preferred polarization position angles on time scales as long as three years. This reflects stability in the geometry of the region emitting the polarized optical emission. We discuss the observed spectral dependence of the degree of polarization and some of the possible mechanisms for producing the observed characteristics. While dilution of the polarized emission by the host galaxy starlight is present in some objects, we demon- strate that the average polarization properties derived from our observations are not drastically affected by this effect. The objects in our monitored sample did not display the larger than one magnitude variations generally used to characterize the optical variability of blazars in general.Comment: LaTex file, 21 pages, with tables appended as a poscript file. Contact [email protected] for postscript figure files. Institute for Advanced Study number AST 93/4

    The Hidden Nuclear Spectrum of the Luminous IRAS Source FSC10214++4724

    Get PDF
    Optical spectropolarimetry of the luminous IRAS source FSC10214++4724 (z=2.286=2.286) reveals that the strong (\twid17\%) linear polarization detected by Lawrence \etal\/ is shared by both the narrow UV emission lines and the underlying continuum. This observation and the brightness of the source rule out synchrotron emission and dichroic extinction by dust as the polarizing mechanism, leaving scattering as the only plausible cause of the polarized emission. The narrowness of the lines requires that the scatterers be dust grains or cool (<1.6×<1.6\times104^4~K) electrons. We can recover the spectrum that is incident on the scattering medium provided we make some reasonable assumptions regarding the source geometry. The scattered UV spectrum has a power law index α\alpha~ of 1.2±0.6-1.2 \pm 0.6 (FνναF_\nu\propto\nu^\alpha), steeper than what would be expected from a young burst of star formation, but similar to many AGN.Comment: 10 pages, with figure, uuencoded postscript Institute for Advanced Study number AST 94/1

    Directed motion emerging from two coupled random processes: Translocation of a chain through a membrane nanopore driven by binding proteins

    Full text link
    We investigate the translocation of a stiff polymer consisting of M monomers through a nanopore in a membrane, in the presence of binding particles (chaperones) that bind onto the polymer, and partially prevent backsliding of the polymer through the pore. The process is characterized by the rates: k for the polymer to make a diffusive jump through the pore, q for unbinding of a chaperone, and the rate q kappa for binding (with a binding strength kappa); except for the case of no binding kappa=0 the presence of the chaperones give rise to an effective force that drives the translocation process. Based on a (2+1) variate master equation, we study in detail the coupled dynamics of diffusive translocation and (partial) rectification by the binding proteins. In particular, we calculate the mean translocation time as a function of the various physical parameters.Comment: 22 pages, 5 figures, IOP styl

    Effects of weak anchoring on C1 and C2 chevron structures

    Get PDF
    We present a theoretical study of the effect of weak anchoring on the transition between C1 and C2 chevron structures in smectic C liquid crystals. We employ a continuum theory which allows for variable cone, azimuthal and layer tilt angles. Equilibrium profiles for the director cone and azimuthal angles in the C1 and C2 states are calculated from the standard Euler-Lagrange minimisation of the total energy of the system. By comparing the total energies of the C1 and C2 states we can determine the globally stable chevron profile and calculate the critical temperature for the C1-C2 transition, which depends on anchoring strength and pretilt angle variations

    Harnessing Information Technology to Inform Patients Facing Routine Decisions: Cancer Screening as a Test Case

    Get PDF
    PURPOSE Technology could transform routine decision making by anticipating patients’ information needs, assessing where patients are with decisions and preferences, personalizing educational experiences, facilitating patient-clinician information exchange, and supporting follow-up. This study evaluated whether patients and clinicians will use such a decision module and its impact on care, using 3 cancer screening decisions as test cases. METHODS Twelve practices with 55,453 patients using a patient portal participated in this prospective observational cohort study. Participation was open to patients who might face a cancer screening decision: women aged 40 to 49 who had not had a mammogram in 2 years, men aged 55 to 69 who had not had a prostate-specific antigen test in 2 years, and adults aged 50 to 74 overdue for colorectal cancer screening. Data sources included module responses, electronic health record data, and a postencounter survey. RESULTS In 1 year, one-fifth of the portal users (11,458 patients) faced a potential cancer screening decision. Among these patients, 20.6% started and 7.9% completed the decision module. Fully 47.2% of module completers shared responses with their clinician. After their next office visit, 57.8% of those surveyed thought their clinician had seen their responses, and many reported the module made their appointment more productive (40.7%), helped engage them in the decision (47.7%), broadened their knowledge (48.1%), and improved communication (37.5%). CONCLUSIONS Many patients face decisions that can be anticipated and proactively facilitated through technology. Although use of technology has the potential to make visits more efficient and effective, cultural, workflow, and technical changes are needed before it could be widely disseminated

    Exact steady-state velocity of ratchets driven by random sequential adsorption

    Full text link
    We solve the problem of discrete translocation of a polymer through a pore, driven by the irreversible, random sequential adsorption of particles on one side of the pore. Although the kinetics of the wall motion and the deposition are coupled, we find the exact steady-state distribution for the gap between the wall and the nearest deposited particle. This result enables us to construct the mean translocation velocity demonstrating that translocation is faster when the adsorbing particles are smaller. Monte-Carlo simulations also show that smaller particles gives less dispersion in the ratcheted motion. We also define and compare the relative efficiencies of ratcheting by deposition of particles with different sizes and we describe an associated "zone-refinement" process.Comment: 11 pages, 4 figures New asymptotic result for low chaperone density added. Exact translocation velocity is proportional to (chaperone density)^(1/3

    In Silico Generation of Alternative Hypotheses Using Causal Mapping (CMAP)

    Get PDF
    Previously, we introduced causal mapping (CMAP) as an easy to use systems biology tool for studying the behavior of biological processes that occur at the cellular and molecular level. CMAP is a coarse-grained graphical modeling approach in which the system of interest is modeled as an interaction map between functional elements of the system, in a manner similar to portrayals of signaling pathways commonly used by molecular cell biologists. CMAP describes details of the interactions while maintaining the simplicity of other qualitative methods (e.g., Boolean networks)

    Detection of Extended Polarized Ultraviolet Radiation from the z = 1.82 Radio Galaxy 3C 256

    Full text link
    We have detected spatially extended linear polarized UV emission from the high-redshift radio galaxy 3C~256 (z=1.82z=1.82). A spatially integrated (7.87.8'' diameter aperture) measurement of the degree of polarization of the VV-band (rest frame 0.19 μ\mum) emission yields a value of 16.4\% (±2.2\pm 2.2\%) with a position angle of 42.442{}\rlap{\rm .}^\circ 4 (±3.9\pm 3{}\rlap{\rm .}^\circ 9), orthogonal to the position angle on the sky of the major axis of the extended emission. The peak emission measured with a 3.63.6'' diameter circular aperture is 11.7\% (±1.5\pm 1.5\%) polarized with a position angle of 42.442{}\rlap{\rm .}^\circ 4 (±3.6\pm 3{}\rlap{\rm .}^\circ 6). An image of the polarized flux is presented, clearly displaying that the polarized flux is extended and present over the entire extent of the object. While it has been suggested that the UV continuum of 3C~256 might be due to star formation (Elston 1988) or a protogalaxy (Eisenhardt \& Dickinson 1993) based on its extremely blue spectral energy distribution and similar morphology at UV and visible wavelengths, we are unable to reconcile the observed high degree of polarization with such a model. While the detection of polarized emission from HZRGs has been shown to be a common phenomena, 3C~256 is only the third object for which a measurement of the extended polarized UV emission has been presented. These data lend additional support to the suggestion first made by di Serego Alighieri and collaborators that the ``alignment effect'', the tendency for the extended UV continuum radiation and line emission from HZRGs to be aligned with the major axis of the extended radio emission, is in large part due to scattering of anisotropic nuclear emission.Comment: 11 pages, LaTeX (aaspp style) file. Figure available by request to [email protected]

    ``Superfast'' Reaction in Turbulent Flow with Potential Disorder

    Full text link
    We explore the regime of ``superfast'' reactivity that has been predicted to occur in turbulent flow in the presence of potential disorder. Computer simulation studies confirm qualitative features of the previous renormalization group predictions, which were based on a static model of turbulence. New renormalization group calculations for a more realistic, dynamic model of turbulence show that the superfast regime persists. This regime, with concentration decay exponents greater than that for a well-mixed reaction, appears to be a general result of the interplay among non-linear reaction kinetics, turbulent transport, and local trapping by potential disorder.Comment: 14 pages. 4 figures. Uses IOP styles. To appear in J. Phys. A: Math. Ge
    corecore