2,309 research outputs found

    Book review: Handbook of early childhood literacy

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    Joanne Larson and Shira May Peterson highlight the paucity of research on how talk is used in pre-school settings compared to school settings. They locate the wealth of research studies on talk and discourse in formal learning settings in terms of the different ideological positions adopted. They use two continua; Streets (1995) distinction between ideological and autonomous conceptions of literacy and whether the function of literacy is seen as fixed or fluid to separate the studies into four quadrants, each with a distinctive ideological base. This means that their analysis does not highlight the groundbreaking impact of individual studies, but it does illustrate very effectively how ideological assumptions shape both research design and the resulting recommendations for practice. It also highlights some key research problems: that ideological rigidity means researchers can miss opportunities to build on each others' findings

    Women at Refrigerators: The Gender Politics of Food and Eating in Supergirl

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    Dans la série télévisée Super Girl, l’héroïne extraterrestre Kara Zor-El est dotée d'un métabolisme tout aussi « super ». En tant que Kryptonienne, elle peut manger tout ce dont elle a envie, son corps lui permettant de consommer des calories infinies sans les conséquences genrées généralement dramatisées au cinéma et à la télévision. Traitées sur un mode comique, ces scènes soulignent le lien qui unit Kara et sa sœur humaine Alex, et proposent un renoncement superficiel aux normes alimentaires imposées aux femmes. Pourtant, de telles scènes suggèrent-elles une résistance ou une réification de telles normes, en particulier lorsque ses homologues humains ne bénéficient pas d’un tel répit ? Au cours des 60 ans d’histoire du personnage, la nourriture a souvent marqué les divisions de genre entre Kara et son cousin, Superman, tout en ne soulignant que rarement son expérience de la diaspora et sa lutte pour s’assimiler à la fois en tant que citoyenne terrienne et américaine. Alors que la série propose des récits sur la discrimination et les droits des extraterrestres, en énonçant des maximes sur l’autonomie des femmes et leur « pouvoir féminin », elle offre un paysage culinaire fade et largement occidental où la nourriture évoque les stéréotypes de la féminité idéalisée et la pression exercée pour contrôler le corps. Retraçant l’histoire de la bande dessinée du personnage, cet article étudie le rôle de l’alimentation dans la série télévisée Super Girl, en examinant la manière dont la nourriture est le lieu d’une critique et d’une réaffirmation des normes alimentaires genrées.In the television series Supergirl, the alien heroine Kara Zor-El is gifted with an equally super metabolism. As a Kryptonian, she can eat whatever and however much she wants, her body allowing her to consume endless calories minus the gendered consequences implied in film and television. Such scenes work as comedy while emphasizing the bond shared by Kara and her human sister Alex, and function as a surface renunciation of the eating norms placed on women. Yet, do such scenes suggest resistance or reification of such norms, particularly when her human counterparts enjoy no such respite? Throughout the character’s 60-year history, food has often marked the gendered divisions between Kara and her male cousin, Superman, while only rarely highlighting her experience of diaspora and her struggle to assimilate as both Earthling and American citizen. While the series features narratives about discrimination and alien rights, spouting maxims about women’s autonomy and ‘girl power,’ it offers up a bland, largely Western culinary landscape where food evokes stereotypes of idealized femininity and the pressure to control the body. Tracing the character’s comic book history, this paper takes up the role of eating in the Supergirl TV series, examining the ways in which food both counters and reinscribes gendered eating norms as well as Western cultural assumptions

    The housing environment of participants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC):a resource for studies of influences on health [version 1; peer review: 2 approved with reservations].

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    Background: Early life environmental health exposures related to housing can have a significant impact on an individual’s physical and mental health and physical development. Housing exposures can fall into two main areas – a representation of social circumstances and physical conditions.   Methods: During pregnancy and post-delivery, self-completion questionnaires concerning the housing environment were administered to the ALSPAC (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents & Children) study mothers and their partners until the study offspring were aged 18. Data collected included types of housing, housing tenure, numbers of rooms in the home, whether shared or sole use of kitchen and indoor flushing toilet, household moves, Council Tax band, difficulties in affording rent/mortgage and becoming homeless. Here we also describe the historic development of housing in the Bristol and surrounding Avon areas. Results: Data collected included the tenure (e.g., owned/rented) of the home, its size (indexed by the number of rooms), the presence of over-crowding (measured by the number of residents per room), presence of amenities, and frequency of household moves. This information was collected on over 13,000 women during pregnancy >8000 at age 10 and >4000 at 18 years. Council Tax bands were asked at 10 and 18 years.   Conclusions: This is the first of two Data Notes on the housing type and housing circumstances of the families enrolled in ALSPAC. The second Data Note will detail their internal housing conditions. The data provides an excellent resource for researchers when considering the influences of housing on physical and mental health and development

    Investigating Impacts of Health Policies Using Staggered Difference-in-Differences: The Effects of Adoption of an Online Consultation System on Prescribing Patterns of Antibiotics

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    We use a recently proposed staggered difference-in-differences approach to investigate effects of adoption of an online consultation system in English general practice on antibiotic prescribing patterns. The target estimand is the average effect for each group of practices (defined by year of adoption) in each year, which we aggregate across all adopting practices, by group, and by time since adoption. We find strong evidence of a positive effect of adoption on antibiotic prescribing rates, though the magnitude of effect is relatively small. As time since adoption increases, the effect size increases, while effects vary across groups
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