98 research outputs found

    Estimated IPD to CAP incidence rate ratio over the period 2008/09 to 2012/2013.

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    <p>Estimated IPD to CAP incidence rate ratio over the period 2008/09 to 2012/2013.</p

    Results of the cost effectiveness analysis according to incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) and maximum price per dose; base case and sensitivity analysis.

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    <p>Results of the cost effectiveness analysis according to incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) and maximum price per dose; base case and sensitivity analysis.</p

    Incidence of vaccine-type IPD and CAP as applied by year in the model, and the cost-effectiveness and maximum price per dose (threshold of £20,000) for the corresponding incidence in case this would be the long-term incidence.

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    <p>Incidence of vaccine-type IPD and CAP as applied by year in the model, and the cost-effectiveness and maximum price per dose (threshold of £20,000) for the corresponding incidence in case this would be the long-term incidence.</p

    Projected future incidence of Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) caused by the PCV13 vaccine types per 100,000.

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    <p>In 2018/2019 a new steady state was assumed to be reached and the same incidence was continued after.</p

    Relationship between Humoral Immune Responses against HPV16, HPV18, HPV31 and HPV45 in 12-15 Year Old Girls Receiving Cervarix<sup>®</sup> or Gardasil<sup>®</sup> Vaccine

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    <div><p>Background</p><p>Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines confer protection against the oncogenic genotypes HPV16 and HPV18 through the generation of type-specific neutralizing antibodies raised against virus-like particles (VLP) representing these genotypes. The vaccines also confer a degree of cross-protection against HPV31 and HPV45, which are genetically-related to the vaccine types HPV16 and HPV18, respectively, although the mechanism is less certain. There are a number of humoral immune measures that have been examined in relation to the HPV vaccines, including VLP binding, pseudovirus neutralization and the enumeration of memory B cells. While the specificity of responses generated against the vaccine genotypes are fairly well studied, the relationship between these measures in relation to non-vaccine genotypes is less certain.</p><p>Methods</p><p>We carried out a comparative study of these immune measures against vaccine and non-vaccine genotypes using samples collected from 12–15 year old girls following immunization with three doses of either Cervarix<sup>®</sup> or Gardasil<sup>®</sup> HPV vaccine.</p><p>Results</p><p>The relationship between neutralizing and binding antibody titers and HPV-specific memory B cell levels for the vaccine genotypes, HPV16 and HPV18, were very good. The proportion of responders approached 100% for both vaccines while the magnitude of these responses induced by Cervarix<sup>®</sup> were generally higher than those following Gardasil<sup>®</sup> immunization. A similar pattern was found for the non-vaccine genotype HPV31, albeit at a lower magnitude compared to its genetically-related vaccine genotype, HPV16. However, both the enumeration of memory B cells and VLP binding responses against HPV45 were poorly related to its neutralizing antibody responses. Purified IgG derived from memory B cells demonstrated specificities similar to those found in the serum, including the capacity to neutralize HPV pseudoviruses.</p><p>Conclusions</p><p>These data suggest that pseudovirus neutralization should be used as the preferred humoral immune measure for studying HPV vaccine responses, particularly for non-vaccine genotypes.</p></div
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