161 research outputs found

### Relativistic x-ray free-electron lasers in the quantum regime

We present a nonlinear theory for relativistic x-ray free-electron lasers in the quantum regime, using a collective Klein-Gordon (KG) equation (for relativistic electrons), which is coupled with the Maxwell-Poisson equations for the electromagnetic and electrostatic fields. In our model, an intense electromagnetic wave is used as a wiggler which interacts with a relativistic electron beam to produce coherent tunable radiation. The KG-Maxwell-Poisson model is used to derive a general nonlinear dispersion relation for parametric instabilities in three space dimensions, including an arbitrarily large amplitude electromagnetic wiggler field. The nonlinear dispersion relation reveals the importance of quantum recoil effects and oblique scattering of the radiation that can be tuned by varying the beam energy

### Numerical study of mode conversion between lower hybrid and whistler waves on short-scale density striations

We present a theoretical and numerical study of linear mode conversion of lower hybrid waves interacting with short-scale density striations in the Earth's ionosphere. The efficiency of the conversion process is investigated for different sets of parameters such as the angle of incidence, the wavelength of the lower hybrid wave, and the size of the striation. It is found that the most efficient whistler generation occurs at a critical angle of incidence where the whistler waves are driven resonantly along the density striations, and when the product of the striation width and the wave number of the lower hybrid wave is of the order unity. It is suggested that whistlers generated as a byproduct of upper hybrid F-region ionospheric heating can be observed on the ground and by satellites. The generated whistlers could be important for the precipitation of energetic electrons in the radiation belts

### Nonlinear aspects of quantum plasma physics

Dense quantum plasmas are ubiquitous in planetary interiors and in compact
astrophysical objects, in semiconductors and micro-mechanical systems, as well
as in the next generation intense laser-solid density plasma interaction
experiments and in quantum x-ray free-electron lasers. In contrast to classical
plasmas, one encounters extremely high plasma number density and low
temperature in quantum plasmas. The latter are composed of electrons, positrons
and holes, which are degenerate. Positrons (holes) have the same (slightly
different) mass as electrons, but opposite charge. The degenerate charged
particles (electrons, positrons, holes) follow the Fermi-Dirac statistics. In
quantum plasmas, there are new forces associated with i) quantum statistical
electron and positron pressures, ii) electron and positron tunneling through
the Bohm potential, and iii) electron and positron angular momentum spin.
Inclusion of these quantum forces provides possibility of very high-frequency
dispersive electrostatic and electromagnetic waves (e.g. in the hard x-ray and
gamma rays regimes) having extremely short wavelengths. In this review paper,
we present theoretical backgrounds for some important nonlinear aspects of
wave-wave and wave-electron interactions in dense quantum plasmas.
Specifically, we shall focus on nonlinear electrostatic electron and ion plasma
waves, novel aspects of 3D quantum electron fluid turbulence, as well as
nonlinearly coupled intense electromagnetic waves and localized plasma wave
structures. Also discussed are the phase space kinetic structures and
mechanisms that can generate quasi-stationary magnetic fields in dense quantum
plasmas. The influence of the external magnetic field and the electron angular
momentum spin on the electromagnetic wave dynamics is discussed.Comment: 42 pages, 20 figures, accepted for publication in Physics-Uspekh

### Instability and dynamics of two nonlinearly coupled intense laser beams in a quantum plasma

We consider nonlinear interactions between two relativistically strong laser beams and a quantum plasma composed of degenerate electron fluids and immobile ions. The collective behavior of degenerate electrons is modeled by quantum hydrodynamic equations composed of the electron continuity, quantum electron momentum (QEM) equation, as well as the Poisson and Maxwell equations. The QEM equation accounts the quantum statistical electron pressure, the quantum electron recoil due to electron tunneling through the quantum Bohm potential, electron-exchange, and electron-correlation effects caused by electron spin, and relativistic ponderomotive forces (RPFs) of two circularly polarized electromagnetic (CPEM) beams. The dynamics of the latter are governed by nonlinear wave equations that include nonlinear currents arising from the relativistic electron mass increase in the CPEM wave fields, as well as from the beating of the electron quiver velocity and electron density variations reinforced by the RPFs of the two CPEM waves. Furthermore, nonlinear electron density variations associated with the driven (by the RPFs) quantum electron plasma oscillations obey a coupled nonlinear SchrÃ¶dinger and Poisson equations. The nonlinearly coupled equations for our purposes are then used to obtain a general dispersion relation (GDR) for studying the parametric instabilities and the localization of CPEM wave packets in a quantum plasma. Numerical analyses of the GDR reveal that the growth rate of a fastest growing parametrically unstable mode is in agreement with the result that has been deduced from numerical simulations of the governing nonlinear equations. Explicit numerical results for two-dimensional (2D) localized CPEM wave packets at nanoscales are also presented. Possible applications of our investigation to intense laser-solid density compressed plasma experiments are highlighted

### Quantum-electrodynamical parametric instability in the incoherent photon gas

We present a theory for the quantum-electrodynamical (QED) parametric scattering instability of an intense photon pulse in an incoherent radiation background. The pump electromagnetic (EM) wave can decay into a scattered daughter EM wave and an acousticlike wave due to the QED vacuum polarization nonlinearity. By a linear instability analysis we obtain a nonlinear dispersion relation for the growth rate of the scattering instability. The nonlinear QED scattering instability can give rise to the exchange of orbital angular momentum between intense Laguerre-Gaussian mode photon pulses and the two daughter waves, which may be a useful method to detect the highly energetic photon gases existing in the vicinity of rotating dense bodies in the Universe, such as pulsars and magnetars. The observation of the scattered waves may reveal information about the twisted acoustic waves in the incoherent photon gas

### Stimulated scattering of electromagnetic waves carrying orbital angular momentum in quantum plasmas

We investigate stimulated scattering instabilities of coherent circularly polarized electromagnetic (CPEM) waves carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) in dense quantum plasmas with degenerate electrons and nondegenerate ions. For this purpose, we employ the coupled equations for the CPEM wave vector potential and the driven (by the ponderomotive force of the CPEM waves) equations for the electron and ion plasma oscillations. The electrons are significantly affected by the quantum forces (viz., the quantum statistical pressure, the quantum Bohm potential, as well as the electron exchange and electron correlations due to electron spin), which are included in the framework of the quantum hydrodynamical description of the electrons. Furthermore, our investigation of the stimulated Brillouin instability of coherent CPEM waves uses the generalized ion momentum equation that includes strong ion coupling effects. The nonlinear equations for the coupled CPEM and quantum plasma waves are then analyzed to obtain nonlinear dispersion relations which exhibit stimulated Raman, stimulated Brillouin, and modulational instabilities of CPEM waves carrying OAM. The present results are useful for understanding the origin of scattered light off low-frequency density fluctuations in high-energy density plasmas where quantum effects are eminent

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