76 research outputs found

    Globalization, Factor Endowments and Scale-Invariant Growth

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    The paper develops a two-country dynamic general-equilibrium model of growth without scale effects to explore the effects of globalization on long-run growth and wages. Higher quality products are endogenously discovered through stochastic and sequential global innovation contests in which challengers devote resources to R&D and technology leaders undertake rent-protection activities (RPAs) to prolong the expected duration of temporary monopoly power by frustrating the R&D effort of challengers. Globalization (i.e., a move from autarky to an integrated trading equilibrium) for two countries with identical relative factor abundance and possible differences in size does not affect the long-run growth rate of either country. However, the country that is abundant in the factor used intensively in the production of R&D services grows faster in autarky. Moreover, factor prices (adjusted for quality) and national long-run growth rates converge and are eventually equalized. Depending on international per-capita differences in factor abundance, the model also generates intra-sectoral trade, vertical and horizontal multinationals, and international outsourcing of services (R&D investment or RPAs). The growth effects of globalization between countries with different relative factor endowments are larger for smaller countries.Economic growth, scale effects, R&D, rent-protecting activities, innovation, wages.

    A Simple Model of Quality Heterogeneity and International Trade

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    This paper develops a trade model with firm-specifc quality heterogeneity, limit pricing, and an endogenous distribution of markups. Exposure to trade induces only the firms producing high-quality (high-price) products to enter the export markets, whereas firms producing low-quality (low-price) products serve the domestic market in accor- dance to the Alchian and Allen (1964) conjecture. Trade liberalization intensifies the competition; causes firms producing low-quality products to exit the market; increases the number of products consumed in each country; and generates quality upgrading that results in higher average domestic and export markups. The welfare effect of trade liberalization is ambiguous because the laissez-faire markups can be greater or lower than the socially optimal markups.

    Globalization, Factor Endowments,and Scale-Invariant Growth

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    The paper develops a two-country dynamic general-equilibrium model of growth without scale effects to explore the effects of globalization on long-run growth and wages. Higher quality products are endogenously discovered through stochastic and sequential global innovation contests in which challengers devote resources to R&D and technology leaders undertake rent-protection activities (RPAs) to prolong the expected duration of temporary monopoly power by frustrating the R&D effort of challengers. Globalization (i.e., a move from autarky to an integrated trading equilibrium) for two countries with identical relative factor abundance and possible differences in size does not affect the long-run growth rate of either country. However, the country that is abundant in the factor used intensively in the production of R&D services grows faster in autarky. Moreover, factor prices (adjusted for quality) and national long-run growth rates converge and are eventually equalized. Depending on international per-capita differences in factor abundance, the model also generates intra-sectoral trade, vertical and horizontal multinationals, and international outsourcing of services (R&D investment or RPAs). The growth effects of globalization between countries with different relative factor endowments are larger for smaller countries.Economic growth, scale effects, R&D, rent-protecting activities, innovation, wages

    The Conundrum of Recovery Policies: Growth or Jobs?

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    This paper adopts a Neo-Schumpeterian approach to macroeconomics, by proposing a model which includes fully-endogenous growth, involuntary search-based unemployment, and financial frictions. The model analyzes the effects of several recovery policies used by governments to fight unemployment or/and enhance growth. Employment protection legislation reduces growth and unemployment. Policies that reduce the cost of job vacancies decrease unemployment and raise growth. Industrial policies in the form of production subsidies to young small firms, production taxes to adult large firms, and R&D subsidies increase growth and unemployment. Policies that reduce financial frictions accelerate growth but exert an ambiguous effect on unemployment.fully- endogenous growth, Schumpeterian unemployment, financial frictions, recovery policies, vacancy creation

    A North-South Model of International Justice

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    How Cool is C.O.O.L.?

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    This paper develops a partial equilibrium model of a small open-economy producing and trading an unsafe product that is supplied by perfectly competitive producers. The presence of product safety considerations, in this case risks to health, introduces a wedge between the market prices producers receive and the higher risk-adjusted prices consumers respond to. The size of the wedge depends positively on the per-unit cost of illness and the proportion of unsafe units embodied in the parent risky product. The model is used to analyze the welfare effects of trade with and without a country-of-origin labeling (COOL) program. Assuming imports are less safe than domestic production, the welfare gains from trade in the absence of COOL are ambiguous and may justify the imposition of a trade ban. Even if a full ban does not improve welfare, some restriction of trade is always welfare-enhancing. These outcomes derive from an informational distortion that prevents consumers from distinguishing the different country-specific risks embodied in the foreign and domestic products resulting in a pooling equilibrium. The presence of a COOL program removes the informational distortion and generates a welfare maximizing separating equilibrium in which the safer (domestic) product commands a higher market price. In the presence of a COOL program, more trade caused by a reduction in protection is better than less trade.country-of-origin labeling, protection, product safety, welfare, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, International Relations/Trade, F10, F13, L15,
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