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    Brewer's spent grain, coffee grounds, burdock, and willow-four examples of biowaste and biomass valorization through advanced green extraction technologies

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    This paper explores the transformation of biowastes from food industry and agriculture into high-value products through four examples. The objective is to provide insight into the principles of green transition and a circular economy. The first two case studies focus on the waste generated from the production of widely consumed food items, such as beer and coffee, while the other two examine the potential of underutilized plants, such as burdock and willow, as sources of valuable compounds. Phenolic compounds are the main target in the case of brewer's spent grain, with p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid being the most common. Lipids are a possible target in the case of spent coffee grounds with palmitic (C16:0) and linoleic (C18:2) acid being the major fatty acids among those recovered. In the case of burdock, different targets are reported based on which part of the plant is used. Extracts rich in linoleic and oleic acids are expected from the seeds, while the roots extracts are rich in sugars, phenolic acids such as chlorogenic, caffeic, o-coumaric, syringic, cinnamic, gentisitic, etc. acids, and, interestingly, the high-value compound epicatechin gallate. Willow is well known for being rich in salicin, but picein, (+)-catechin, triandrin, glucose, and fructose are also obtained from the extracts. The study thoroughly analyzes different extraction methods, with a particular emphasis on cutting-edge green technologies. The goal is to promote the sustainable utilization of biowaste and support the green transition to a more environmentally conscious economy.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio
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