6,872 research outputs found

    Understanding patient expectations of health care : a qualitative study

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    Understanding and measuring patient expectations of health care is central to improving patient satisfaction and delivering patient-centered care. However, most empiric research in this field has focused on measuring patient expectations for specific diseases only. Patient expectations common to a variety of settings and clinical contexts need to be better understood to design measures with wider utility. We aimed to understand how patients express and conceptualize their expectations of health care across a range of clinical contexts and conditions. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients presenting to a major metropolitan hospital, informed by interpretive phenomenological analysis. Sampling continued until thematic saturation. Interview topics explored the illness experience, interactions with clinicians, how patients communicated and conceptualized their expectations of health care, and the nature of these expectations. The 26 participants conceptualized and described their expectations in 3 distinct domains: (1) health outcomes, (2) individual clinicians, and (3) the health-care system. Importantly, these domains were consistent across a variety of clinical contexts, participant demographics, and medical conditions. Despite variation in expectations due to individual patient circumstances, we identified 3 conceptual domains within which expectations consistently lie. When designing measurement tools for patient expectations, we suggest incorporating questions specifically addressing the 3 domains we have identified. With such measures, clinicians and health-care providers can be empowered to provide and monitor patient-centered care with outcomes tailored to what patients desire

    Constraining a hybrid volatility basis-set model for aging of wood-burning emissions using smog chamber experiments : A box-model study based on the VBS scheme of the CAMx model (v5.40)

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    In this study, novel wood combustion aging experiments performed at different temperatures (263 and 288 K) in a ∼ 7 m³ smog chamber were modelled using a hybrid volatility basis set (VBS) box model, representing the emission partitioning and their oxidation against OH. We combine aerosol–chemistry box-model simulations with unprecedented measurements of non-traditional volatile organic compounds (NTVOCs) from a high-resolution proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) and with organic aerosol measurements from an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). Due to this, we are able to observationally constrain the amounts of different NTVOC aerosol precursors (in the model) relative to low volatility and semi-volatile primary organic material (OMsv_{sv}), which is partitioned based on current published volatility distribution data. By comparing the NTVOC ∕ OMsv_{sv} ratios at different temperatures, we determine the enthalpies of vaporization of primary biomass-burning organic aerosols. Further, the developed model allows for evaluating the evolution of oxidation products of the semi-volatile and volatile precursors with aging. More than 30 000 box-model simulations were performed to retrieve the combination of parameters that best fit the observed organic aerosol mass and O : C ratios. The parameters investigated include the NTVOC reaction rates and yields as well as enthalpies of vaporization and the O : C of secondary organic aerosol surrogates. Our results suggest an average ratio of NTVOCs to the sum of non-volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds of ∼ 4.75. The mass yields of these compounds determined for a wide range of atmospherically relevant temperatures and organic aerosol (OA) concentrations were predicted to vary between 8 and 30 % after 5 h of continuous aging. Based on the reaction scheme used, reaction rates of the NTVOC mixture range from 3.0 × 1011^{-11} to 4. 0 × 1011^{-11} cm³ molec1^{-1} s1^{-1}. The average enthalpy of vaporization of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) surrogates was determined to be between 55 000 and 35 000 J mol1^{-1}, which implies a yield increase of 0.03-0.06 % K1^{-1} with decreasing temperature. The improved VBS scheme is suitable for implementation into chemical transport models to predict the burden and oxidation state of primary and secondary biomass-burning aerosols

    Methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase, transforming growth factor-β1 and lymphotoxin-α genes polymorphisms and susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis

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    AbstractBackgroundRheumatoid arthritis is a widely prevalent autoimmune disorder with suggested genetic predisposition.ObjectivesThe aim of this study is to detect the pattern of genetic polymorphism of methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677 T and A1298 C), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 T869 C) and lymphotoxin-α (LT-α A252G) in patients having rheumatoid arthritis and correlate these patterns to disease activity and serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), B-Cell Activating Factor (BAFF), and osteopontin.MethodsA total of 194 subjects, 90 controls and 104 patients with rheumatoid arthritis were genotyped for MTHFR C677 T and A1298 C, TGF-β1 T869 C and LT-α A252G polymorphisms using a methodology based on PCR-RFLP. Also serum levels of TNF-α, osteopontin and BAFF were measured by ELISA kits.ResultsThe CT genotype and T allele of MTHFR C677 T and GG genotype and G allele of LT-α A252G are associated with the risk of RA and with higher levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.ConclusionOur findings suggest that there is association between MTHFR C677 T and LT-α A252G genes polymorphisms and increased risk of RA in this sample of Egyptian population

    Polimorfismos dos genes metilenotetrahidrofolato redutase, fator de crescimento transformador β1 e linfotoxina‐α e susceptibilidade à artrite reumatoide

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    ResumoAntecedentesA artrite reumatoide é uma doença autoimune amplamente prevalente com sugerida predisposição genética.ObjetivosDetectar o padrão de polimorfismo dos genes metilenotetrahidrofolato redutase (MTHFR C677T e A1298C), fator de crescimento transformador β1 (TGF‐β1 T869C) e linfotoxina‐α (LT‐α A252G) em pacientes com artrite reumatoide e correlacionar esses padrões com a atividade da doença e os níveis séricos de fator de necrose tumoral alfa (TNF‐α), fator ativador de linfócitos B (BAFF) e osteopontina.MétodosForam genotipados 194 indivíduos – 90 controles e 104 com artrite reumatoide – à procura de polimorfismos dos genes MTHFR C677T e A1298C, TGF‐β1 T869C e LT‐α A252G com uma metodologia baseada na PCR‐RFLP. Mensuraram‐se também os níveis séricos de TNF‐α, osteopontina e BAFF com kits de Elisa.ResultadosO genótipo CT e o alelo T do MTHFR C677T e o genótipo GG e alelo G do LT‐α A252G estão associados ao risco de AR e a níveis mais elevados da citocina pró‐inflamatória TNF‐α em pacientes com artrite reumatoide.ConclusãoOs achados do presente estudo sugerem que há associação entre os polimorfismos dos genes MTHFR C677T e LT‐α A252G e um risco aumentado de AR nessa amostra da população egípcia.AbstractBackgroundRheumatoid arthritis is a widely prevalent autoimmune disorder with suggested genetic predisposition.ObjectivesThe aim of this study is to detect the pattern of genetic polymorphism of methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T and A1298C), transforming growth factor‐β1 (TGF‐β1 T869C) and lymphotoxin‐α (LT‐α A252G) in patients having rheumatoid arthritis and correlate these patterns to disease activity and serum levels of tumor necrosis factor‐alpha (TNF‐α), B‐Cell Activating Factor (BAFF), and osteopontin.MethodsA total of 194 subjects, 90 controls and 104 patients with rheumatoid arthritis were genotyped for MTHFR C677T and A1298C, TGF‐β1 T869C and LT‐α A252G polymorphisms using a methodology based on PCR‐RFLP. Also serum levels of TNF‐α, osteopontin and BAFF were measured by ELISA kits.ResultsThe CT genotype and T allele of MTHFR C677T and GG genotype and G allele of LT‐α A252G are associated with the risk of RA and with higher levels of the pro‐inflammatory cytokine, TNF‐α in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.ConclusionOur findings suggest that there is association between MTHFR C677T and LT‐α A252G genes polymorphisms and increased risk of RA in this sample of Egyptian population

    MDHAQ/RAPID3 scores in patients with osteoarthritis are similar to or higher than in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: A cross-sectional study from current routine rheumatology care at four sites

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    Objective To compare patients with a primary diagnosis of osteoarthritis (OA) versus rheumatoid arthritis (RA) for scores on a patient self-report MDHAQ/RAPID3 (Multidimensional Health Assessment Questionnaire/Routine Assessment of Patient Index Data 3), and for physician global assessment (DOCGL). Methods All patients with all diagnoses complete an MDHAQ/RAPID3 at all routine rheumatology visits in the waiting area before seeing a rheumatologist at four sites, one in Australia and three in the USA. The two-page MDHAQ includes 0-10 scores for physical function (in 10 activities), pain and patient global assessment [on 0-10 visual analogue scales (VAS)], compiled into a 0-30 RAPID3, as well as fatigue and self-report painful joint count scales. Rheumatologists estimate a 0-10 DOCGL VAS. Demographic, MDHAQ/RAPID3 and DOCGL data from a random visit were compared in patients with RA versus patients with OA using multivariate analysis of variance, adjusted for age, disease duration and formal education level. Results Median RAPID3 was higher in OA versus RA at all four sites (11.7-16.8 vs 6.2-11.8) (p<0.001 at three sites). Median DOCGL in OA versus RA was 5 vs 4, 4 vs 3.7, 2.2 vs 2.5 and 2 vs 1. Patterns were similar for individual RAPID3 items, fatigue and painful joint scales, and in stratified analyses of patients aged 55-70. Conclusion Patient MDHAQ/RAPID3 and physician DOCGL indicate similar or higher disease burden in OA versus RA. Routine MDHAQ/RAPID3 allows direct comparisons of the two diseases. The findings suggest possible revision of current clinical and public policy views concerning OA

    Hepatitis C Infection Patterns at a Tertiary Care Center in New York: A Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Introduction In the United States, 2.7 to 3.9 million patients are infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) with 3,500 new cases reported yearly. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, HCV was the underlying or contributing cause of death of 19,659 patients in 2014. These facts underscore the need for a better understanding of the scope of this disease. Our epidemiologic study aimed at analyzing the pattern of occurrence of HCV infection at Staten Island University Hospital (SIUH) by evaluating the characteristics of newly infected patients with hepatitis C in 2014. The identified features served to better distinguish the targets for preventive health care in our particular population. Methodology A cross-sectional study of all newly diagnosed patients with HCV infections in the year 2014 presenting to SIUH was conducted using International Classification of Disease-9 codes (ICD-9) for hepatitis C. We included all patients with a positive HCV antibody confirmed by polymerase chain reaction testing. Patients were divided into groups according to age to simulate the age groups in the 2013 - 2014 Hepatitis B and C Annual Report of the New York City (NYC) Department of Health and Mental Hygiene published in 2016 (abbreviated to 2014 NYCDOH Report, hereafter). Gender and HCV genotypes were also collected. We compared disease frequency between age groups, gender, and genotype with the results of the 2014 NYCDOH Report. Results A total of 378 newly diagnosed HCV cases were identified; 60.05% were men, and 39.95% were women. The rate of infection with genotype 1a was the highest (36. 5%) followed by 1b (25.9%). In women, genotype 1b was predominant (13.76%) versus genotype 1a as the most common in men. The mean age was 54 years for men and 57 years for women. Most cases fell into the 60 to 69-year age group (32.28%), followed by the 50 to 59-year age group (31.48%). More so, all patients 80 years and older were exclusively women. Conclusions We found most new HCV infections at SIUH were diagnosed in patients aged 60 to 69 years, and the 2014 NYC DOH Report indicates most new HCV infections occur in patients aged 40 to 59 years. Also, all HCV infections detected in patients older than 80 years of age were found in women. These findings provide a better understanding of the patient demographics for appropriate HCV screening policies. Increased awareness and strict adherence to screening policies in baby boomers and high-risk populations are paramount in order to diagnose HCV infection early, offer therapy, and prevent HCV-related mortality and morbidity

    A Test-Case on Continuation Methods for Bladed-Disk Vibration with Contact and Friction

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    Bladed-disks in turbo-machines experience harsh operating conditions and undergo high vibration amplitudes if not properly damped. Friction at the blade-to-blade or blade-to-disk interfaces plays a key role in dampening the high amplitudes. Due to the inherent complexity of these structures and non-linearities introduced by the friction joints, accurate response prediction becomes very difficult. There are variety of methods in the literature to predict non-linear vibration due to contact friction. However, their application to the bladed-disks remains limited. Furthermore, there are not many 3D realistic test-cases in the open literature for testing those methods and serve as a benchmark. A bladed-disk representative of a real turbine is presented as an open numerical test-case for the research community. It is characterized by a blade root joint and a shroud joint. The bladed-disk sector is meshed in different ways along with component mode synthesis (CMS) model order reduction for onward non-linear computations. The steady-state solution is obtained by multi-Harmonic Balance method and then continuation method is employed to predict the non-linear frequency response. Thus, it can serve as a case for testing previous and new methods as well as a benchmark for comparative studies

    In-vivo usefulness of optical coherence tomography in atrophic-erosive oral lichen planus: Comparison between histopathological and ultrastructural findings

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    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a common premalignant chronic inflammatory disorder. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) provides a real-time, non-invasive, and in-situ optical signature using light of varying wavelengths to examine tissue. Aim of the present study was to assess the possible role of OCT as diagnostic tool for atrophic-erosive OLP by examining OCT scans of healthy buccal mucosa, and comparing their ultrastructural features with those of a buccal mucosa affected by atrophic-erosive OLP, using their histopathological counterparts as the gold standard. Through grayscale (enface scan) and an application in which the vascularization of the tissue is visible (dynamic scan), it was possible to distinguish the healthy from the lichenoid pattern from 20 controls (12 M; 8 F; mean age: 41.32 years) and 20 patients with histologically confirmed atrophic-erosive OLP (7 M; 13 F; mean age: 64.27 years). In detail, mean width of stratified squamous epithelium (EP) and lamina propria (LP) were evaluated. Among controls, EP and LP showed a mean width of 300 (±50) and of 600 (±50) μm respectively; among cases, disruption of membrane basement prevented from any measurement. Furthermore, a differential pattern of EP and LP emerged between the two groups: a light-grayish, hypo-reflective, homogeneous area of EP recurring in controls turned into a hyper-reflective, non-homogeneous area among cases. Dynamic scan showed a differential profile of LP vascularization, varying from a hypo-reflective red area with small blood vessels in the control group, to a hypo/hyper-reflective area, completely overrun by a denser, wider blood flow amid OLP cases. Although histopathological examination remains the gold standard for OLP diagnosis, OCT could be a potentially helpful tool for the clinician and the pathologist, since it allows analysis of the vascularization of the sample without adversely affecting histological processing

    Chemical meningitis and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone release (SIADH): a rare presentation of pituitary adenoma apoplexy

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    Pituitary apoplexy is an uncommon condition typically resulting from a sudden haemorrhage within a pituitary adenoma. This bleed can present clinically with a wide array of signs and symptoms. This report documents the case of a 62-year-old male who presented to the Lebanese Hospital Geitaoui University Medical Center with signs and symptoms of meningeal irritation. He was initially thought to have meningitis, and was started on antibiotics; he was then found to have pituitary adenoma apoplexy that was complicated by syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone release (SIADH). The patient was successfully treated with antibiotics, and fluid restriction and hypertonic saline after ruling out other more common causes for his hyponatraemia, before undergoing a transsphenoidal resection of the pituitary adenoma. A three-month follow-up evaluation of the patient demonstrated the absence of hormonal imbalances and the absence of residual tumours on imaging
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