224 research outputs found

    Low-delay random view access in multi-view coding using a bit-rate adaptive downsampling approach

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    In this paper, a new multi-view coding (MVC) scheme is proposed and evaluated. The scheme offers improved low-delay view random access capability and at the same time comparable compression performance with respect to the reference multi-view coding scheme currently used. The proposed scheme uses the concept of multiple-resolution view coding, exploiting the trade-off between quantization distortion and downsampling distortion at changing bit-rates, which in turn provides improved coding efficiency. Bi-predictive (B) coded views, used in the conventional MVC method, are replaced with predictive coded downscaled views, reducing the view dependency in a multi-view set and hence reducing the random view access delay, but preserving the compression performance at the same time. Results show that the proposed method reduces the view random access delay in a MVC system significantly, but has a similar objective and subjective performance with the conventional MVC method

    Analysis of pixel-mapping rounding on geometric distortion as a prediction for view synthesis distortion

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    We analyze the performance of the geometric distortion, incurred when coding depth maps in 3D Video, as an estimator of the distortion of synthesized views. Our analysis is motivated by the need of reducing the computational complexity required for the computation of synthesis distortion in 3D video encoders. We propose several geometric distortion models that capture (i) the geometric distortion caused by the depth coding error, and (ii) the pixel-mapping precision in view synthesis. Our analysis starts with the evaluation of the correlation of geometric distortion values obtained with these models and the actual distortion on synthesized views. Then, the different geometric distortion models are employed in the rate-distortion optimization cycle of depth map coding, in order to assess the results obtained by the correlation analysis. Results show that one of the geometric distortion models is performing consistently better than the other models in all tests. Therefore, it can be used as a reasonable estimator of the synthesis distortion in low complexity depth encoders

    A Temporal Subsampling Approach for Multiview Depth Map Compression

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    Immunomodulatory intervention in sepsis by multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa with thalidomide: an experimental study

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    BACKGROUND: Thalidomide is an inhibitor of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) that has been proven effective for the treatment of experimental sepsis by Escherichia coli. It was tested whether it might behave as an effective immunomodulator in experimental sepsis by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa. METHODS: Sepsis was induced by the intraperitoneal injection of 1 × 10(8 )cfu/kg inoculum of the test isolate in a total of 109 Wistar rats divided in three groups as follows: group A controls; group B administered seed oil 30 minutes before bacterial challenge; and group C administered 50 mg/kg of thalidomide diluted in seed oil 30 minutes before bacterial challenge. Blood was sampled for estimation of endotoxins (LPS), TNFα, interferon-gamma (IFNγ), nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA). LPS was measured by the QCL-1000 LAL assay, TNFα and IFNγ by ELISA, NO by a colorimetric assay and MDA by the thiobarbiturate assay. RESULTS: Mean (± SE) survival of groups A, B and C were 18.60 ± 1.84, 12.60 ± 0.60 and 30.50 ± 6.62 hours (p of comparisons A to C equal to 0.043 and B to C equal to 0.002). Decreased TNFα and NO levels were found in sera of animals of group C compared to group A. Plasma levels of LPS, MDA and IFNγ did not differ between groups. CONCLUSION: Intake of thalidomide considerably prolonged survival in experimental sepsis by MDR P.aeruginosa an effect probably attributed to decrease of serum TNFα

    The role of tumour-derived iNOS in tumour progression and angiogenesis

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    BACKGROUND: Progressive tumour growth is dependent on the development of a functional tumour vasculature and highly regulated by growth factors and cytokines. Nitric oxide (NO) is a free radical, produced both by tumour and host cells, and functions as a signalling molecule downstream of several angiogenic factors. Both pro-and antitumourigenic properties have been attributed to NO. METHODS: The expression of the inducible isoform of NO synthase (iNOS) was knocked down in the C6 glioma cell line using constitutive expression of antisense RNA, and the effect of tumour-derived NO on tumour progression and angiogenesis was investigated. RESULTS: Tumours in which iNOS expression was decreased displayed significantly reduced growth rates compared with tumours derived from parental C6 cells. Quantitative non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging and fluorescence microscopy of tumour uptake of Hoechst 33342, and haematoxylin and eosin staining, revealed significantly impaired vascular development and function in antisense iNOS tumours compared with control in vivo, primarily associated with the more necrotic tumour core. Decreased iNOS expression had no effect on tumour VEGF expression. CONCLUSION: Nitric oxide derived from tumour iNOS is an important modulator of tumour progression and angiogenesis in C6 gliomas and further supports the therapeutic strategy of inhibiting iNOS for the treatment of cancer. British Journal of Cancer (2011) 104, 83-90. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6606034 www.bjcancer.com Published online 7 December 2010 (C) 2011 Cancer Research U

    Portuguese propolis disturbs glycolytic metabolism of human colorectal cancer in vitro

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    Propolis is a resin collected by bees from plant buds and exudates, which is further processed through the activity of bee enzymes. Propolis has been shown to possess many biological and pharmacological properties, such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, immunostimulant and antitumor activities. Due to this bioactivity profile, this resin can become an alternative, economic and safe source of natural bioactive compounds.Antitumor action has been reported in vitro and in vivo for propolis extracts or its isolated compounds; however, Portuguese propolis has been little explored. The aim of this work was to evaluate the in vitro antitumor activity of Portuguese propolis on the human colon carcinoma cell line HCT-15, assessing the effect of different fractions (hexane, chloroform and ethanol residual) of a propolis ethanol extract on cell viability, proliferation, metabolism and death. METHODS: Propolis from Angra do HeroĂ­smo (Azores) was extracted with ethanol and sequentially fractionated in solvents with increasing polarity, n-hexane and chloroform. To assess cell viability, cell proliferation and cell death, Sulforhodamine B, BrDU incorporation assay and Anexin V/Propidium iodide were used, respectively. Glycolytic metabolism was estimated using specific kits. RESULTS: All propolis samples exhibited a cytotoxic effect against tumor cells, in a dose- and time-dependent way. Chloroform fraction, the most enriched in phenolic compounds, appears to be the most active, both in terms of inhibition of viability and cell death. Data also show that this cytotoxicity involves disturbance in tumor cell glycolytic metabolism, seen by a decrease in glucose consumption and lactate production. CONCLUSION: Our results show that Portuguese propolis from Angra do HeroĂ­smo (Azores) can be a potential therapeutic agent against human colorectal cancer.We thank the Portuguese Science and Technology Foundation (FCT) for VMG fellowship (ref. SFRH/BI/33503/2008). The authors thank Mr. Antonio Marques from Frutercoop - Azores, who kindly collected and provided the propolis sample for the study

    Clinical chronobiology: a timely consideration in critical care medicine

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    A fundamental aspect of human physiology is its cyclical nature over a 24-h period, a feature conserved across most life on Earth. Organisms compartmentalise processes with respect to time in order to promote survival, in a manner that mirrors the rotation of the planet and accompanying diurnal cycles of light and darkness. The influence of circadian rhythms can no longer be overlooked in clinical settings; this review provides intensivists with an up-to-date understanding of the burgeoning field of chronobiology, and suggests ways to incorporate these concepts into daily practice to improve patient outcomes. We outline the function of molecular clocks in remote tissues, which adjust cellular and global physiological function according to the time of day, and the potential clinical advantages to keeping in time with them. We highlight the consequences of "chronopathology", when this harmony is lost, and the risk factors for this condition in critically ill patients. We introduce the concept of "chronofitness" as a new target in the treatment of critical illness: preserving the internal synchronisation of clocks in different tissues, as well as external synchronisation with the environment. We describe methods for monitoring circadian rhythms in a clinical setting, and how this technology may be used for identifying optimal time windows for interventions, or to alert the physician to a critical deterioration of circadian rhythmicity. We suggest a chronobiological approach to critical illness, involving multicomponent strategies to promote chronofitness (chronobundles), and further investment in the development of personalised, time-based treatment for critically ill patients

    Environmental effects of ozone depletion, UV radiation and interactions with climate change : UNEP Environmental Effects Assessment Panel, update 2017

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