7 research outputs found

    Variations in Litterfall Dynamics, C:N:P Stoichiometry and Associated Nutrient Return in Pure and Mixed Stands of Camphor Tree and Masson Pine Forests

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    Litterfall, directly and indirectly, affects the soil physicochemical properties, microbial activity, and diversity of soil fauna and flora by adding organic matter and nutrients to the soil. This study explores litterfall dynamics such as litterfall production, litter decomposition rate, and associated nutrient return in three forest types, that is, camphor tree forest (CTF), Masson pine forest (MPF), and camphor tree and Masson pine mixed forest (CMF), in subtropical China. Results showed that CMF had the highest mean annual litterfall production (4.30 ± 0.22 t ha−1), which was significantly higher than that of MPF (3.41 ± 0.25 t ha−1) and CTF (3.26 ± 0.17 t ha−1). Leaf represented the major fraction of litterfall, constituting over 71% of the total litterfall mass in the three forest types. The contribution of branch litter was 16.3, 8.9, and 16.9%, and miscellaneous litter was 12.6, 18.9, and 11.1% in CTF, MPF, and CMF, respectively. The concentration of macronutrients ranked as N > Ca > K > Mg > P in all litter fractions. The total annual macronutrient return to the soil from the litterfall was in order as CTF (74.2 kg ha−1‧yr−1) > CMF (70.7 kg ha−1‧yr−1) > MPF (33.6 kg ha−1‧yr−1). The decomposition rate was higher in leaf litter than in branch litter throughout the three forests. Among the forest types, the leaf and branch decomposition rates were in a pattern: CTF > CMF > MPF. The ratio of C/N in both leaf and branch litters was significantly higher in MPF than in CTF and CMF, while no significant differences in N/P ratio were found in these litters among the three forests. The high N:P ratios in leaf litter (23/30) and the branch (24/32) litter indicated the high N returning and low nutrient returning to the soil. Our results suggested that the broadleaved forests have faster litter decomposition and higher macronutrient returns than conifer forests. Moreover, the litter decomposition rate was mainly associated with litterfall quality and chemical composition. The introduction of broadleaved trees into monoculture coniferous stands could increase litter production nutrients return, and thus, it had advantages in soil nutrients restoration and sustainable forest management

    Indigenous medicinal plants of the Kani tribes in Kanyakumari District: Ethnobotanical documentation and quantitative study 

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    The investigation identified 120 species distributed in 54 families. 70 plants of ethnomedicinal importance were identified, which have not yet been reported so far from the Kanyakumari wildlife forest of Southern-Western Ghats. 52 participants were approached three times to verify the information provided by twenty informants. This approach was undertaken to ensure the accuracy and reliability of the data collected. The data quality was ensured by selecting welltrained 20 practitioners for pointing out missing information if any and the data is carefully analyzed. In total, 120 Medicinal plant species of which Dicot plants constitute 116 species (96.7%) and monocot plant constitutes 4 species (3.3%). Fabaceae with 12 (10.00%) was the most commonly reported family of medicinal plant species. The habit-wise study revealed that 40 species (33.33%) were trees, followed by the most widely used life types herb (36 species) (30%). The most popular preparation method for treating the ailment was paste (40 preparations) for internal consumption as well as external application. The documents valuable therapeutic knowledge, which opens up possibilities for future exploration in plantbased compounds and pharmaceutical inquiry. These investigations have the potential to contribute to the development of plant-based nanomedicine, drug discovery, and production. Finally, the paper deals with the combination of socio-economic and legal facets of the interaction between tribals and forests

    Biological Activity of Root Extract Decalepis hamiltonii (Wight & Arn) against Three Mosquito Vectors and Their Non-Toxicity against the Mosquito Predators

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    Bioactive molecules of plant origin play a significant role as defensive agents in different insect species. Chemical compounds in medicinal plants have been an exciting alternative to standard methods of controlling mosquito larvae. The present study evaluates the different solvent extracts of D. hamiltonii for toxicity against three different mosquito larvae. Bioassay revealed that the effect of the methanol extracts increased the larval mortality with increasing concentration. The highest larval mortality was observed in Culex quinquefasciatus with 98.33%, followed by 95 and 90% mortality in Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi, at 24 h exposure. GC-MS analysis of methanol extract of D. hamiltonii showed six major peak compounds. They are benzaldehyde, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy-(10.35%), dodecanoic acid (11.02%), n-hexadecanoic acid (21.05%), linoleic acid methyl ester (14.20%), oleic acid (21.04%), octadecanoic acid (22.21%). The level of α and β Carboxylesterases gets significantly decreased post-treatment with the methanol extract of D. hamiltonii in a dose-dependent manner.In contrast, glutathione S-transferase (GST) and cytochrome-P450 (CYP450) levels get up-lifted steadily when the dosage gets increased. The ratio of GST level has drastically proclaimed to in Ae. aegypti 0.702 mg/m Lin parallel to Cx. quiquefasciatus (0.656 mg/mL) and An. stephensi (0.812 mg/mL). Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) activity was observed to increase significantly post-treatment with the sub-lethal dosage of methanol extract of D. hamiltonii. Correspondingly, the non-target screening against the aquatic predators reveals that the crude root extracts and their derivatives are ecologically safe and less toxic. Overall, the present research highlights the chemical characterization of crude methanol extracts of D. hamiltonii, their insecticidal activity against the medically challenging pests, and their non-target activity delivers an ecologically safe, and target specific bio-active agents and suitable substitute for chemical pesticides

    Biosurfactants: Potential and Eco-Friendly Material for Sustainable Agriculture and Environmental Safety—A Review

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    With the present climate change and increasing world population, there is an urgent need to discover creative, efficient, and cost-effective natural products for the benefit of humanity. Biosurfactants are produced by various microorganisms that have several distinct properties compared to other synthetic surfactants, including mild production conditions, multifunctionality, higher biodegradability, and lower toxicity of living cells synthesis of active compounds. Due to their surface tension reducing, emulsion stabilizing, and biodegrading properties of these in place of chemical surfactants, they are generating huge demand in terms of research and usage. Biosurfactants are widely used in the food industry as food-formulation ingredients and antiadhesive agents as emulsifiers, de-emulsifiers, spreading agents, foaming agents, and detergents that find application in various fields such as agriculture, industrial sectors, and environmental recreation. Recent research focused more on heavy metal bioremediation from compost was achieved using biosurfactants-producing bacteria, which resulted in an improvement in compost quality. Although a number of studies on biosurfactants synthesis have been reported, very limited information on its cinematics and the consumption of renewable substrates are available. In this review paper, we made an attempt to critically review biosurfactants, their usage, research related to them, and challenges faced

    Emerging Trends of Nanotechnology and Genetic Engineering in Cyanobacteria to Optimize Production for Future Applications

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    Nanotechnology has the potential to revolutionize various fields of research and development. Multiple nanoparticles employed in a nanotechnology process are the magic elixir that provides unique features that are not present in the component’s natural form. In the framework of contemporary research, it is inappropriate to synthesize microparticles employing procedures that include noxious elements. For this reason, scientists are investigating safer ways to produce genetically improved Cyanobacteria, which has many novel features and acts as a potential candidate for nanoparticle synthesis. In recent decades, cyanobacteria have garnered significant interest due to their prospective nanotechnological uses. This review will outline the applications of genetically engineered cyanobacteria in the field of nanotechnology and discuss its challenges and future potential. The evolution of cyanobacterial strains by genetic engineering is subsequently outlined. Furthermore, the recombination approaches that may be used to increase the industrial potential of cyanobacteria are discussed. This review provides an overview of the research undertaken to increase the commercial avenues of cyanobacteria and attempts to explain prospective topics for future research

    In Vitro and In Silico Toxicological Properties of Natural Antioxidant Therapeutic Agent Azima tetracantha. LAM

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    Plant-derived antioxidants are a large group of natural products with the capacity to reduce radical-scavenging. Due to their potent therapeutic and preventive actions, these compounds receive a lot of attention from scientists, particularly pharmacologists. The pharmacological activities of the Azima tetracantha Lam. (AT) plant, belonging to the Salvadoraceae family, reported here justifies its traditional use in treating several diseases or disorders. This study aims to look at the propensity of certain plant compounds found in natural AT plant extracts that might play a critical role as a secondary metabolite in cervical cancer treatment. There is a shortage of information on the plant’s phytochemical and biological characteristics. Methanol (MeOH) solvent extracts of the dried AT plant were screened phytochemically. Its aqueous extract was tested for antioxidant, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, and anticancerous properties. Absorption Distribution Metabolism and Excretion (ADME/T), Docking, and HPLC were also performed. In clinical treatment, the plant shown no adverse effects. The antioxidant activity was evaluated and showed the highest concentration at 150 µg/mL (63.50%). MeOH leaf extract of AT exhibited the highest and best inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus (15.3 mm/1000) and displayed a high antiseptic potential. At a 200 µg/mL concentration, MeOH leaves-extract inhibited red blood cells (RBC) hemolysis by 66.56 ± 0.40, compared with 62.33 ± 0.40 from the standard. Albumin’s ability to suppress protein denaturation ranged from 16.75 ± 0.65 to 62.35 ± 0.20 inhibitions in this test, providing even more support for its favorable anti-inflammatory properties. The ADME/T studies were considered for a potential cancer drug molecule, and one of our compounds from MeOH extract fills the ADME and toxicity parameters. The forms of compound 4 showed a strong hydrogen-bonding interaction with the vital amino acids (ASN923, THR410, LEU840TRY927, PHE921, and GLY922). A total of 90% of cell inhibition was observed when HeLa cell lines were treated with 300 µg/mL of compound 4 (7-acetyl-3a1-methyl- 4,14-dioxo-1,2,3a,3a1,4,5,5a,6,8a,9b,10,11,11a-tetradecahydro-2,5a epoxy5,6a (methanooxymethano)phenaleno[1′,9′:5,6,7]indeno[1,7a-b]oxiren-2-yl acetate). The polyphenol compounds demonstrated significant advances in anticancer drug properties, and it could lead to activation of cancer cell apoptosis

    Protective Effect of Salvianolic Acid B in Acetic Acid-Induced Experimental Colitis in a Mouse Model

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    In its prominent experimental studies salvianolic acid B (Sal B) is novel because of its well-defined, common physiological effects, which include anti-inflammatory, anti-depressant, cardioprotective, DNA protective, neuroprotective and hepatoprotective activity in experimental animals. Initially, Sal B was studied for its anti-inflammatory properties, used as a remedy for a wide range of disease conditions, but its specific efficacy on inflammatory bowel disease is still unclear. The aim of this current study was to understand the therapeutic potential of Sal B in an acetic acid (AA)—triggered experimental mouse colitis model. Colitis was triggered by intrarectal injection of 5% AA, and then laboratory animals were given Sal B (10, 20 and 40 μg/kg) for seven days. The ulcerated colonic mucosa was assessed by clinical experiment, macroscopical, biological and histopathological analysis. The results showed depleted SOD, CAT, GSH levels and consequential elevated MPO and MDA levels and aberrant crypt foci and mast cells were seen in the AA-induced colonic mucosa of experimental animals. The data obtained from this study demonstrate that a dose of 40 µg/kg showed an efficacious anti-ulcer effect against AA-induced experimental colitis. Based on its antioxidant efficacy, Sal B may therefore be useful as a therapeutic approach for ulcerative colitis