68,502 research outputs found

    Legal Requirements That Building Contractors be Licensed

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    Economic Implications of Business Boundary Laws

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    Den här avhandlingen belyser hur avverkning och markberedning påverkar markfloran i den svenska barrskogen. Dessutom utvärderas två inventeringsmetoder som används inom växtekologin. Vid arbetet har både rikstäckande inventeringsdata och fältförsök använts och de likartade resultaten tyder på att rikstäckande inventeringar är en underutnyttjad resurs i forskningen. Ju större andel av träden som avverkas desto större blir förändringen av markflorans sammansättning. Vissa arter, som lingon, ljung, etc., verkar dock inte påverkas i nämnvärd omfattning, medan andra, som blåbär, minskar i relation till hur mycket som avverkats. Gräs och mjölkört ökar efter avverkning, dock visar sig vissa gräs och mjölkört inte reagera om inte avverkningen överskrider ett tröskelvärde på ca 80 %. Avverkning har en liten, men signifikant, effekt på antalet arter, medan artomsättning, d.v.s. arters etablering på och/eller försvinnande från provytorna, framförallt påverkas av andel gran innan avverkning, markens produktionsförmåga och först därefter av hur stor andel av träden som avverkas. Det var också uppenbart att markberedning har en stark effekt som skiljer sig från avverkning. Framförallt gynnas björnmossor av markberedning men även vårfryle, kruståtel och mjölkört. Arter som missgynnas av markberedning var bl.a., en levermossa, lingon, väggmossa och kråkbär. I växtekologi är visuell täckningsbedömning, d.v.s. hur stor del av en provyta som täcks av en växtart, och registrering av förekomst/icke förekomst, d.v.s. finns en växtart på en provyta eller inte, de två vanligaste metoderna vid vegetationsinventering. Vid registrering av förekomst/icke förekomst missas upp till en tredjedel av förekomsterna, vanligaste orsaken till missade registreringar verkar vara att man inte upptäcker arten snarare än att den inte kan identifieras. Det var stora variationer mellan arter, där arter med få exemplar på provytan missas oftare. Både den visuella täckningsbedömningen och förekomst/icke förekomst visar sig ha personberoende fel, d.v.s. att olika personer genomgående ger högre eller lägre värden än andra. Trots det personberoende felet visar sig täckningsbedömningar ha ett större informationsvärde än registrering av förekomst/icke förekomst när det gäller att särskilja olika typer av vegetation. Erfarenhet har en förvånansvärt liten effekt på kvaliteten av täckningsbedömningar.This thesis has two main focuses; first, the response of forest ground layer flora on forestry, mainly harvesting and secondly, the quality of the vegetation assessment methods, cover estimates by eye and presence/absence data. The effect of harvesting intensity was evaluated with survey data from permanent plots as well as vegetation data from a field trial fourteen years after harvesting. Both data sets confirmed that response of ground layer flora increased with increasing logging intensity. Thereby, indicating that survey data is possible to use in research. From the survey data set, existence of a time lag was evident for several species and also a threshold level was evident in cutting intensity needed to affect a number of species. Logging had a modest, but significant positive effect on the change in species number per plot. Species turnover was influenced by the proportion of Picea abies in the tree canopy; site productivity; and logging intensity. In the field trial scarification had a strong effect that was different from the one created by cutting. In plant ecology cover estimate by eye and presence/absence recording are the two most frequent methods used. The methods were evaluated with survey data and a field trial. In the first data set vegetation was recorded independently by two observers in 342 permanent 100-m2 plots. Overall, one third of each occurrence was missed by one of the two observers, but with large differences among species. Species occurring at low abundance tended to be frequently overlooked. Observer-explained variance in cover estimates was <10% in 15 of 17 species. In the second data set, 10 observers independently estimated cover in sixteen 100-m2 plots in two different vegetation types. The bias connected to observer varied substantially between species. The estimates of missing field and bottom layer had the highest bias, indicating that missing layers are problematic to use in analysis of change. Experience had a surprisingly small impact on the bias connected to observer. Analyses revealed that for the statistical power, cover estimates by eye carries a higher information value than do presence/absence data when distinguishing between vegetation types, differences between observers is negligible, and using more than one observer had little effect

    Of Truth, Pragmatism, and Sour Grapes: The Second Circuit’s Decision in SEC v. Citigroup Global Markets

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    In his 2001 letter to Berkshire Hathaway shareholders Warren Buffett stated, ‚Äú[Y]ou only find out who is swimming naked when the tide goes out.‚ÄĚ In the fall of 2008, the tide went out when Lehman Brothers collapsed and credit markets froze. Left exposed were the shoddy‚ÄĒand sometimes fraudulent‚ÄĒpractices of participants in the theretofore esoteric industry of structured finance. Since then, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) has extracted billions of dollars in settlements from the industry. A frequent enforcement tool of the SEC has been the consent judgment, a hybrid settlement that contains injunctive elements. This Note examines the role of the SEC in relation to Article III courts, specifically in the context of consent judgments. Drawing on the rich history of equitable practice and the doctrine of the separation of powers, this Note argues that SEC v. Citigroup Global Markets was wrongly decided in that it excessively curtails the role of district courts in determining the propriety of equitable relief. The opinion not only contradicts longstanding precedent, but also goes too far in ceding a core function of the judiciary to the SEC. This Note shows that, as a result, the decision serves to undermine fundamental goals of the securities laws

    Monitoring the extent and occurrence of fire in the different veld types of South Africa with particular reference to its ecological role and role in range management

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    The author has identified the following significant results. Veld burning was recorded from LANDSAT imagery covering approximately 75 million ha or 62% of the surface of the eastern part of South Africa. All basic data on the location, areas, and numbers of burns for 10 biomes, composed of 67 veld types, are available on 1:250,000 and 1:500,000 map overlays, and are summarized on small scale maps showing fire distribution and amount burned in classes per 15 minute square of latitude and longitude. Veld burning is not randomly distributed, but is almost continuous over a broad belt, widest in the north and narrowing southeastwards, and then southwestwards between the eastern escarpment and the area. It is shown that over almost the whole sea, the overall pattern of veld burning is clearly marked out as early as July in midwinter, subsequent development being merely an intensification of the pattern
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