34 research outputs found

    Child body mass index-for-age z-scores according to maternal anthropometry, DHS/Brazil, 2006.

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    <p>Note: <sup>1</sup>Overall F-test;</p>2<p>p for trend test;</p>3<p>mean differences adjusted for maternal age, maternal education, smoking status, maternal parity, household income and household food security.</p><p>The model for waist circumference was additionally adjusted for maternal height and maternal BMI. Sample sizes for adjusted models were 3,407, 3,404 and 3,325 for maternal height, BMI and WC, respectively. BAZ: body mass index-to-age z-score; WC: waist circumference; BMI: body mass index.</p

    Children height-for-age z-scores according to maternal anthropometry, DHS/Brazil, 2006.

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    <p>Note: <sup>1</sup>Overall F-test;</p>2<p>Test for linear trend;</p>3<p>mean differences adjusted for maternal age, maternal education, smoking status, maternal parity, household income and household food security.</p><p>The model for waist circumference was additionally adjusted for maternal height and maternal BMI. Sample sizes for adjusted models were 3,420, 3,415 and 3,335 for maternal height, BMI and WC, respectively. HAZ: height-to-age z-score; WC: waist circumference; BMI: body mass index.</p

    Maternal body-mass index and odds ratios for low Apgar scores at 5 and 10 minutes: live singleton term births in Sweden 1992–2010.

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    <p>In addition to regression models used in <a href="http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001648#pmed-1001648-t003" target="_blank">Table 3</a>, odds ratios are further adjusted for mode of delivery.</p

    Prevalence, unadjusted and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of stunted children according to maternal anthropometry, DHS/Brazil, 2006.

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    <p>Note: <sup>1</sup>Design-based Pearson chi-squared test;</p>2<p>p for trend test;</p>3<p>Prevalence ratios adjusted for maternal age, maternal education, smoking status, maternal parity, household income and household food security.</p><p>The model for waist circumference was additionally adjusted for maternal height and maternal BMI. HAZ: height-to-age z-score; BMI: body mass index.</p

    Maternal characteristics and rates of low Apgar scores at 5 and 10 minutes in live singleton term births in Sweden 1992–2010.

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    <p>Maternal characteristics and rates of low Apgar scores at 5 and 10 minutes in live singleton term births in Sweden 1992–2010.</p

    Maternal body-mass index and odds ratios for meconium aspiration and neonatal seizures; live singleton term births in Sweden 1992–2010.

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    <p>In addition to regression models used in <a href="http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001648#pmed-1001648-t003" target="_blank">Table 3</a>, odds ratios are further adjusted for mode of delivery.</p

    Mean height- and body mass index-for-age z-scores according to population characteristics, DHS/Brazil, 2006.

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    <p>Note: <sup>1</sup>Sample crude n;</p>2<p>HAZ: height-to-age z-score;</p>3<p>Mean and standard error accounting for the complex survey design;</p>4<p>Overall F-test;</p>5<p>BAZ: body mass index-to-age z-score;</p>6<p>In 2006–07, 1 real  =  US$ 0.47.</p

    Attributable fractions (AF) of anemia according to age group in urban Amazonian children.

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    a<p>Prevalence (%) of cases exposed in each risk factors.</p>b<p>Adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) estimated from multiple Poisson regression models with additional adjustment for age (in overall analysis), sex, wealth index (quartile), maternal schooling (≤4, 5–8, and ≥9 years), and maternal age (10–21, 22–35, and >35 years).</p>c<p>Attributable fraction defined as p(aPR –1)/aPR.</p

    Data_Sheet_1_Immunomodulation to Prevent or Treat Neonatal Sepsis: Past, Present, and Future.docx

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    <p>Despite continued advances in neonatal medicine, sepsis remains a leading cause of death worldwide in neonatal intensive care units. The clinical presentation of sepsis in neonates varies markedly from that in older children and adults, and distinct acute inflammatory responses results in age-specific inflammatory and protective immune response to infection. This review first provides an overview of the neonatal immune system, then covers current mainstream, and experimental preventive and adjuvant therapies in neonatal sepsis. We also discuss how the distinct physiology of the perinatal period shapes early life immune responses and review strategies to reduce neonatal sepsis-related morbidity and mortality. A summary of studies that characterize immune ontogeny and neonatal sepsis is presented, followed by discussion of clinical trials assessing interventions such as breast milk, lactoferrin, probiotics, and pentoxifylline. Finally, we critically appraise future treatment options such as stem cell therapy, other antimicrobial protein and peptides, and targeting of pattern recognition receptors in an effort to prevent and/or treat sepsis in this highly vulnerable neonatal population.</p
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