3,062 research outputs found

    LSS reference platform control

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    The long range objective of this task is to develop basic technology in the design, mechanization, and analysis of control systems for large flexible space structures. The focus of the FY'81 platform control effort was on the pointing control problems associated with multiple independently controlled experiment packages operating simultaneously on a single platform. Particular emphasis was placed on obtaining a quantitative comparison of controller performance with and without base motion compensation

    Mariner Mars 1971 attitude control subsystem

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    The Mariner Mars 1971 attitude control subsystem (ACS) is discussed. It is comprised of a sun sensor set, a Canopus tracker, an inertial reference unit, two cold gas reaction control assemblies, two rocket engine gimbal actuators, and an attitude control electronics unit. The subsystem has the following eight operating modes: (1) launch, (2) sun acquisition, (3) roll search, (4) celestial cruise, (5) all-axes inertial, (6) roll inertial, (7) commanded turn, and (8) thrust vector control. In the celestial cruise mode, the position control is held to plus or minus 0.25 deg. Commanded turn rates are plus or minus 0.18 deg/s. The attitude control logic in conjunction with command inputs from other spacecraft subsystems establishes the ACS operating mode. The logic utilizes Sun and Canopus acquisition signals generated within the ACS to perform automatic mode switching so that dependence of ground control is minimized when operating in the sun acquisition, roll search, and celestial cruise modes. The total ACS weight is 65.7 lb, and includes 5.4 lb of nitrogen gas. Total power requirements vary from 9 W for the celestial cruise mode to 54 W for the commanded turn mode

    Control system design for the large space systems technology reference platform

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    Structural models and classical frequency domain control system designs were developed for the large space systems technology (LSST) reference platform which consists of a central bus structure, solar panels, and platform arms on which a variety of experiments may be mounted. It is shown that operation of multiple independently articulated payloads on a single platform presents major problems when subarc second pointing stability is required. Experiment compatibility will be an important operational consideration for systems of this type

    The SCUBA Local Universe Galaxy Survey I: First Measurements of the Submillimetre Luminosity and Dust Mass Functions

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    We have used SCUBA to observe a complete sample of 104 galaxies selected at 60 microns from the IRAS BGS and we present here the 850 micron measurements. Fitting the 60,100 and 850 micron fluxes with a single temperature dust model gives the sample mean temperature T=36 K and beta = 1.3. We do not rule out the possibility of dust which is colder than this, if a 20 K component was present then our dust masses would increase by factor 1.5-3. We present the first measurements of the luminosity and dust mass functions, which were well fitted by Schechter functions (unlike those 60 microns). We have correlated many global galaxy properties with the submillimetre and find that there is a tendancy for less optically luminous galaxies to contain warmer dust and have greater star formation efficiencies (cf. Young 1999). The average gas-to-dust ratio for the sample is 581 +/- 43 (using both atomic and molecular hydrogen), significantly higher than the Galactic value of 160. We believe this discrepancy is due to a cold dust component at T < 20 K. There is a suprisingly tight correlation between dust mass and the mass of molecular hydrogen as estimated from CO measurements, with an intrinsic scatter of ~50%.Comment: 24 pages, 15 figures, 8 tables, accepted for publication in MNRA

    Cold Dust in Kepler's Supernova Remnant

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    The timescales to replenish dust from the cool, dense winds of Asymptotic Giant Branch stars are believed to be greater than the timescales for dust destruction. In high redshift galaxies, this problem is further compounded as the stars take longer than the age of the Universe to evolve into the dust production stages. To explain these discrepancies, dust formation in supernovae (SNe) is required to be an important process but until very recently dust in supernova remnants has only been detected in very small quantities. We present the first submillimeter observations of cold dust in Kepler's supernova remnant (SNR) using SCUBA. A two component dust temperature model is required to fit the Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) with Twarm∼102T_{warm} \sim 102K and Tcold∼17T_{cold} \sim 17K. The total mass of dust implied for Kepler is ∼1M⊙\sim 1M_{\odot} - 1000 times greater than previous estimates. Thus SNe, or their progenitors may be important dust formation sites.Comment: 12 pages, 2 figures, accepted to ApJL, corrected proof

    Diffuse X-ray emission in spiral galaxies

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    We compare the soft diffuse X-ray emission from Chandra images of 12 nearby intermediate inclination spiral galaxies to the morphology seen in Halpha, molecular gas, and mid-infrared emission. We find that diffuse X-ray emission is often located along spiral arms in the outer parts of spiral galaxies but tends to be distributed in a rounder morphology in the center. The X-ray morphology in the spiral arms matches that seen in the mid-infrared or Halpha and so implies that the X-ray emission is associated with recent active star formation. We see no strong evidence for X-ray emission trailing the location of high mass star formation in spiral arms. However, population synthesis models predict a high mechanical energy output rate from supernovae for a time period that is about 10 times longer than the lifetime of massive ionizing stars, conflicting with the narrow appearance of the arms in X-rays. The fraction of supernova energy that goes into heating the ISM must depend on environment and is probably higher near sites of active star formation. The X-ray estimated emission measures suggest that the volume filling factors and scale heights are high in the galaxy centers but low in the outer parts of these galaxies. The differences between the X-ray properties and morphology in the centers and outer parts of these galaxies suggest that galactic fountains operate in outer galaxy disks but that winds are primarily driven from galaxy centers.Comment: 28 pages, 4 figures, to be submitted to Ap

    Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men who have sex with men: prevalence and lack of anogenital concordance.

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    To estimate the prevalence of oral detectable human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) attending a sexual health clinic in London and concordance with anogenital HPV infection. Such data are important to improve our understanding of the epidemiology of oral HPV and the potential use of vaccines to prevent oropharyngeal cancers

    The Relative Orientation of Nuclear Accretion and Galaxy Stellar Disks in Seyfert Galaxies

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    We use the difference (delta) between the position angles of the nuclear radio emission and the host galaxy major axis to investigate the distribution of the angle (beta) between the axes of the nuclear accretion disk and the host galaxy disk in Seyfert galaxies. We provide a critical appraisal of the quality of all measurements, and find that the data are limited by observational uncertainties and biases, such as the well known deficiency of Seyfert galaxies of high inclination. There is weak evidence that the distribution of delta for Seyfert 2 galaxies may be different (at the 90% confidence level) from a uniform distribution, while the Seyfert 1 delta distribution is not significantly different from a uniform distribution or from the Seyfert 2 delta distribution. The cause of the possible non-uniformity in the distribution of delta for Seyfert 2 galaxies is discussed. Seyfert nuclei in late-type spiral galaxies may favor large values of delta (at the ~96% confidence level), while those in early-type galaxies show a more or less random distribution of delta. This may imply that the nuclear accretion disk in non-interacting late-type spirals tends to align with the stellar disk, while that in early-type galaxies is more randomly oriented, perhaps as a result of accretion following a galaxy merger. We point out that biases in the distribution of inclination translate to biased estimates of beta in the context of the unified scheme. When this effect is taken into account, the distributions of beta for all Seyferts together, and of Seyfert 1's and 2's separately, agree with the hypothesis that the radio jets are randomly oriented with respect to the galaxy disk. The data are consistent with the expectations of the unified scheme, but do not demand it.Comment: To appear in the Astrophysical Journal, Vol 516 #1, May 1, 1999. Corrected figure placement within pape

    A motif-based approach to network epidemics

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    Networks have become an indispensable tool in modelling infectious diseases, with the structure of epidemiologically relevant contacts known to affect both the dynamics of the infection process and the efficacy of intervention strategies. One of the key reasons for this is the presence of clustering in contact networks, which is typically analysed in terms of prevalence of triangles in the network. We present a more general approach, based on the prevalence of different four-motifs, in the context of ODE approximations to network dynamics. This is shown to outperform existing models for a range of small world networks

    High Carbon in I Zwicky 18: New Results from Hubble Space Telescope Spectroscopy

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    We present new measurements of the gas-phase C/O abundance ratio in both the NW and SE components of the extremely metal-poor dwarf irregular galaxy I Zw 18, based on ultraviolet spectroscopy of the two H II regions using the Faint Object Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. We determine values of log C/O = -0.63 +/- 0.10 for the NW component and log C/O = -0.56 +/- 0.09 for the SE component. In comparison, log C/O = -0.37 in the sun, while log C/O = -0.85 +/- 0.07 in the three most metal-poor irregular galaxies measured by Garnett et al. (1995a). Our measurements show that C/O in I Zw 18 is significantly higher than in other comparably metal-poor irregular galaxies, and above predictions for the expected C/O from massive star nucleosynthesis. These results suggest that carbon in I Zw 18 has been enhanced by an earlier population of lower-mass carbon producing stars; this idea is supported by stellar photometry of I Zw 18 and its companion, which demonstrate that the current bursts of massive stars were not the first. Despite its very low metallicity, it is likely that I Zw 18 is not a ``primeval'' galaxy.Comment: 14 pages including 4 figures; uses aaspp4.sty. Accepted for publication in ApJ. Postscript version also available by e-mail request to author at [email protected]
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