29 research outputs found

    Green Polymerization of Hexadecamethylcyclooctasiloxane Using an Algerian Proton Exchanged Clay Called Maghnite-H+

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    The purpose of this study was to synthesize polydimethylsiloxanes by heterogeneous catalysis, based on the polymerization of the hexadecamethylcyclooctasiloxane (D8) by an environment-friendly solid catalyst (Maghnite-H+). Maghnite-H+ is a natural Algerian clay of the montmorillonite type, prepared by activation with sulfuric acid, the impact of this activation was observable in the XRD spectrum, by the increase in the interlayer spacing (d001) resulting from the intercalation of hydronium ions between layers. The molecular structure of the obtained polymer was determined by different chemical methods of analysis such as IR, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR. The thermal behavior of the polysiloxane obtained was confirmed by DSC. In order to achieve the best possible yield and at the same time to get a polymer of high molecular mass, the operating conditions have been set at t = 8 h and T = 70 °C after the reaction was repeated several times. The average molecular mass and the polydispersity index were measured by GPC. A reaction mechanism has been suggested to show the action of the Maghnite-H+ during the reaction.

    L’influence Des Pratiques Marketing Des Laboratoires Pharmaceutiques Sur L’éthique De La Fonction Médicale Au Maroc

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    In Morocco and unlike the first world countries, and with the absence of the ethical code of medical promotion, a lot of pharmaceutical companies use the gifts policy in order to influence the doctors prescribing to the patients. Concerning the Moroccan pharmaceutical industry, a study made by the competition council in 2011 showed that the existence of dubious practices that goes against the patient’s interest. These practices are often materialized by public relations actions between the stakeholders operating in the medical field in the doctor’s favor, especially the aspects of the heavy and expensive pathologies. While medicine is usually governed by some very strict rules of ethnics and morals, this article aims to analyze the nature of the links that governs the relationship between the pharmaceutical laboratories and the doctors of different specialties; different scales and different areas in Morocco. The article will present a set of elements that demonstrate on the basis of the sample studied that the relationship between the various stakeholders operating in the medical sector is still not healthy, and that it is strongly impacted by material interests. to the detriment of patients, hence the need to involve professional and state actors for the implementation of a strict ethical code

    Catalytic Activity of Maghnite-H+ in the Synthesis of Polyphenylmethylsiloxane under Mild and Solvent-free Conditions

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    In this study, a new and easy strategy was discussed for the purpose of synthesizing of a polymer of phenylmethylcyclosiloxane type (PPMS). The cationic ring opening polymerization of triphenyltrimethylcyclotrisiloxane (D3Ph,Me) was initiated by a solid, efficient and environmentally-friendly catalyst called Maghnite-H+. Maghnite-H+ is a natural clay composed essentially of montmorillonite, it is activated with an acid treatment by replacing the interlayer ions by protons, that results to the increase of the basal space, this may be confirmed by XRD analysis. The reaction was carried out without solvent at different temperatures and for different periods of time, using also several catalyst contents. Subsequently, the operating conditions were opted in order to obtain a maximum yield of the linear polymer and a high average molecular mass as well. The structure of polymers obtained was confirmed by IR analysis. 1H NMR and 13C NMR analyzes were used to follow the crosslinking of polymer chains over time. The thermal behavior was investigated by DSC analysis. The average molecular mass and the polydispersity indices were determined by GPC

    Green Polymerization of Hexadecamethylcyclooctasiloxane Using an Algerian Proton Exchanged Clay Called Maghnite-H+

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    The purpose of this study was to synthesize polydimethylsiloxanes by heterogeneous catalysis, based on the polymerization of the hexadecamethylcyclooctasiloxane (D8) by an environment-friendly solid catalyst (Maghnite-H+). Maghnite-H+ is a natural Algerian clay of the montmorillonite type, prepared by activation with sulfuric acid, the impact of this activation was observable in the XRD spectrum, by the increase in the interlayer spacing (d001) resulting from the intercalation of hydronium ions between layers. The molecular structure of the obtained polymer was determined by different chemical methods of analysis such as IR, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR. The thermal behavior of the polysiloxane obtained was confirmed by DSC. In order to achieve the best possible yield and at the same time to get a polymer of high molecular mass, the operating conditions have been set at t = 8 h and T = 70 °C after the reaction was repeated several times. The average molecular mass and the polydispersity index were measured by GPC. A reaction mechanism has been suggested to show the action of the Maghnite-H+ during the reaction. Copyright © 2018 BCREC Group. All rights reserved Received: 8th March 2017; Revised: 27th July 2017; Accepted: 1st August 2017; Available online: 22nd January 2018; Published regularly: 2nd April 2018 How to Cite: Kherroub, D.E., Belbachir, M., Lamouri, S. (2018). Green Polymerization of Hexadecamethylcyclooctasiloxane Using an Algerian Proton Exchanged Clay Called Maghnite-H+. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 13 (1): 36-46 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.13.1.993.36-46

    Les cellulites cervico-faciales graves, facteurs et critères de gravité

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    La cellulite cervico-faciale grave est une infection polymicrobienne extensive et redoutable du tissu  cellulo-adipeux de la face et du cou. L'objectif de cette étude est d'analyser certains facteurs favorisants et d'évaluer les critères de gravité en fonction des formes anatomo-cliniques. Il s'agit d'une étude  rétrospective réalisée, entre janvier 2007 et décembre 2012, au service de chirurgie maxillo faciale de l'hôpital militaire Avicenne de Marrakech. Sur 147 cas de cellulites cervico-faciales pris en charge au niveau du service, 13 dossiers de cellulites graves ont été retenus. Neuf hommes (69%) et quatre femmes (31%) ont fait l'objet de cette étude, avec un âge moyen de 35 ans. Tous les patients ont été adressés pour prise en charge secondaire après avoir pris des anti-inflammatoires (AI). Sept cas (54%) étaient immunocompétents. La cause dentaire était soulevée chez neufs cas (69%). Cinq cas (38%) ont présenté une forme pseudo phlegmoneuse avec des signes compressifs des voies aérodigestives.L'extension médiastinale a été observée chez quatre patients (31%). La forme nécrosante extensive a été retrouvée dans trois cas (23%). L'étude bactériologique, réalisée chez tous les patients, avait mis en évidence une flore microbienne mixte et polymorphe. Les cellulites cervico-faciales graves posent un réel problème de prise en charge thérapeutique. L'analyse des facteurs favorisants et l'évaluation des critères de gravité dans cette série ont permis de limiter une évolution défavorable.Key words: Cellulites, graves, critères de gravités, facteurs favorisants 

    The global, regional, and national burden of oesophageal cancer and its attributable risk factors in 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017: A systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study 2017

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    © 2020 The Author(s). Background Oesophageal cancer is a common and often fatal cancer that has two main histological subtypes: oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma and oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Updated statistics on the incidence and mortality of oesophageal cancer, and on the disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) caused by the disease, can assist policy makers in allocating resources for prevention, treatment, and care of oesophageal cancer. We report the latest estimates of these statistics for 195 countries and territories between 1990 and 2017, by age, sex, and Socio-demographic Index (SDI), using data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2017 (GBD). Methods We used data from vital registration systems, vital registration-samples, verbal autopsy records, and cancer registries, combined with relevant modelling, to estimate the mortality, incidence, and burden of oesophageal cancer from 1990 to 2017. Mortality-to-incidence ratios (MIRs) were estimated and fed into a Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm) including risk factors. MIRs were used for mortality and non-fatal modelling. Estimates of DALYs attributable to the main risk factors of oesophageal cancer available in GBD were also calculated. The proportion of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma to all oesophageal cancers was extracted by use of publicly available data, and its variation was examined against SDI, the Healthcare Access and Quality (HAQ) Index, and available risk factors in GBD that are specific for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (eg, unimproved water source and indoor air pollution) and for oesophageal adenocarcinoma (gastro-oesophageal reflux disease). Findings There were 473 000 (95% uncertainty interval [95% UI] 459 000-485 000) new cases of oesophageal cancer and 436 000 (425 000-448 000) deaths due to oesophageal cancer in 2017. Age-standardised incidence was 5.9 (5.7-6.1) per 100 000 population and age-standardised mortality was 5.5 (5.3-5.6) per 100 000. Oesophageal cancer caused 9.78 million (9.53-10.03) DALYs, with an age-standardised rate of 120 (117-123) per 100 000 population. Between 1990 and 2017, age-standardised incidence decreased by 22.0% (18.6-25.2), mortality decreased by 29.0% (25.8-32.0), and DALYs decreased by 33.4% (30.4-36.1) globally. However, as a result of population growth and ageing, the total number of new cases increased by 52.3% (45.9-58.9), from 310 000 (300 000-322 000) to 473 000 (459 000-485 000); the number of deaths increased by 40.0% (34.1-46.3), from 311 000 (301 000-323 000) to 436 000 (425 000-448 000); and total DALYs increased by 27.4% (22.1-33.1), from 7.68 million (7.42-7.97) to 9.78 million (9.53-10.03). At the national level, China had the highest number of incident cases (235 000 [223 000-246 000]), deaths (213 000 [203 000-223 000]), and DALYs (4.46 million [4.25-4.69]) in 2017. The highest national-level agestandardised incidence rates in 2017 were observed in Malawi (23.0 [19.4-26.5] per 100 000 population) and Mongolia (18.5 [16.4-20.8] per 100 000). In 2017, age-standardised incidence was 2.7 times higher, mortality 2.9 times higher, and DALYs 3.0 times higher in males than in females. In 2017, a substantial proportion of oesophageal cancer DALYs were attributable to known risk factors: tobacco smoking (39.0% [35.5-42.2]), alcohol consumption (33.8% [27.3-39.9]), high BMI (19.5% [6.3-36.0]), a diet low in fruits (19.1% [4.2-34.6]), and use of chewing tobacco (7.5% [5.2-9.6]). Countries with a low SDI and HAQ Index and high levels of indoor air pollution had a higher proportion of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma to all oesophageal cancer cases than did countries with a high SDI and HAQ Index and with low levels of indoor air pollution. Interpretation Despite reductions in age-standardised incidence and mortality rates, oesophageal cancer remains a major cause of cancer mortality and burden across the world. Oesophageal cancer is a highly fatal disease, requiring increased primary prevention efforts and, possibly, screening in some high-risk areas. Substantial variation exists in age-standardised incidence rates across regions and countries, for reasons that are unclear

    Global injury morbidity and mortality from 1990 to 2017 : results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017

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    Correction:Background Past research in population health trends has shown that injuries form a substantial burden of population health loss. Regular updates to injury burden assessments are critical. We report Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 Study estimates on morbidity and mortality for all injuries. Methods We reviewed results for injuries from the GBD 2017 study. GBD 2017 measured injury-specific mortality and years of life lost (YLLs) using the Cause of Death Ensemble model. To measure non-fatal injuries, GBD 2017 modelled injury-specific incidence and converted this to prevalence and years lived with disability (YLDs). YLLs and YLDs were summed to calculate disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Findings In 1990, there were 4 260 493 (4 085 700 to 4 396 138) injury deaths, which increased to 4 484 722 (4 332 010 to 4 585 554) deaths in 2017, while age-standardised mortality decreased from 1079 (1073 to 1086) to 738 (730 to 745) per 100 000. In 1990, there were 354 064 302 (95% uncertainty interval: 338 174 876 to 371 610 802) new cases of injury globally, which increased to 520 710 288 (493 430 247 to 547 988 635) new cases in 2017. During this time, age-standardised incidence decreased non-significantly from 6824 (6534 to 7147) to 6763 (6412 to 7118) per 100 000. Between 1990 and 2017, age-standardised DALYs decreased from 4947 (4655 to 5233) per 100 000 to 3267 (3058 to 3505). Interpretation Injuries are an important cause of health loss globally, though mortality has declined between 1990 and 2017. Future research in injury burden should focus on prevention in high-burden populations, improving data collection and ensuring access to medical care.Peer reviewe

    Estimating global injuries morbidity and mortality : methods and data used in the Global Burden of Disease 2017 study

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    Background While there is a long history of measuring death and disability from injuries, modern research methods must account for the wide spectrum of disability that can occur in an injury, and must provide estimates with sufficient demographic, geographical and temporal detail to be useful for policy makers. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 study used methods to provide highly detailed estimates of global injury burden that meet these criteria. Methods In this study, we report and discuss the methods used in GBD 2017 for injury morbidity and mortality burden estimation. In summary, these methods included estimating cause-specific mortality for every cause of injury, and then estimating incidence for every cause of injury. Non-fatal disability for each cause is then calculated based on the probabilities of suffering from different types of bodily injury experienced. Results GBD 2017 produced morbidity and mortality estimates for 38 causes of injury. Estimates were produced in terms of incidence, prevalence, years lived with disability, cause-specific mortality, years of life lost and disability-adjusted life-years for a 28-year period for 22 age groups, 195 countries and both sexes. Conclusions GBD 2017 demonstrated a complex and sophisticated series of analytical steps using the largest known database of morbidity and mortality data on injuries. GBD 2017 results should be used to help inform injury prevention policy making and resource allocation. We also identify important avenues for improving injury burden estimation in the future.Peer reviewe

    The global burden of cancer attributable to risk factors, 2010-19 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019

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    Background Understanding the magnitude of cancer burden attributable to potentially modifiable risk factors is crucial for development of effective prevention and mitigation strategies. We analysed results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 to inform cancer control planning efforts globally. Methods The GBD 2019 comparative risk assessment framework was used to estimate cancer burden attributable to behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risk factors. A total of 82 risk-outcome pairs were included on the basis of the World Cancer Research Fund criteria. Estimated cancer deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) in 2019 and change in these measures between 2010 and 2019 are presented. Findings Globally, in 2019, the risk factors included in this analysis accounted for 4.45 million (95% uncertainty interval 4.01-4.94) deaths and 105 million (95.0-116) DALYs for both sexes combined, representing 44.4% (41.3-48.4) of all cancer deaths and 42.0% (39.1-45.6) of all DALYs. There were 2.88 million (2.60-3.18) risk-attributable cancer deaths in males (50.6% [47.8-54.1] of all male cancer deaths) and 1.58 million (1.36-1.84) risk-attributable cancer deaths in females (36.3% [32.5-41.3] of all female cancer deaths). The leading risk factors at the most detailed level globally for risk-attributable cancer deaths and DALYs in 2019 for both sexes combined were smoking, followed by alcohol use and high BMI. Risk-attributable cancer burden varied by world region and Socio-demographic Index (SDI), with smoking, unsafe sex, and alcohol use being the three leading risk factors for risk-attributable cancer DALYs in low SDI locations in 2019, whereas DALYs in high SDI locations mirrored the top three global risk factor rankings. From 2010 to 2019, global risk-attributable cancer deaths increased by 20.4% (12.6-28.4) and DALYs by 16.8% (8.8-25.0), with the greatest percentage increase in metabolic risks (34.7% [27.9-42.8] and 33.3% [25.8-42.0]). Interpretation The leading risk factors contributing to global cancer burden in 2019 were behavioural, whereas metabolic risk factors saw the largest increases between 2010 and 2019. Reducing exposure to these modifiable risk factors would decrease cancer mortality and DALY rates worldwide, and policies should be tailored appropriately to local cancer risk factor burden. Copyright (C) 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.Peer reviewe

    Cationic Ring Opening polymerization of ε-caprolactam by a Montmorillonite Clay Catalyst

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    <p>The ring opening bulk polymerization of ε-caprolactam catalyzed by Maghnite-H+ was reported. Maghnite-H+ is a montmorillonite silicate sheet clay was prepared through a straight forward proton exchange process. The effect of the amount of catalyst, and temperature was studied. Increasing Maghnite-H+ proportion and temperature produced the increase in ε-caprolactam conversion. The kinetics indicated that the polymerization rate is first order with respect to monomer concentration. Mechanism studies showed that monomer inserted into the growing chains with the acyl–oxygen bond scission rather than the break of alkyl–oxygen bond. © 2014 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved</p><p><em>Submitted: 3rd October 2013; Revised: 28th February 2014; Accepted: 1st March 2014</em></p><p>[<strong>How to Cit</strong>e: Kherroub, D.E., Belbachir, M., Lamouri, S. (2014). Cationic Ring Opening Polymeriza-tion of ε-caprolactam by a Montmorillonite Clay Catalyst. <em><strong>Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering &amp; Catalysis</strong></em>, 9 (1): 74-79. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.9.1.5555.74-80)]</p><p><br />[<strong>Permalink/DOI</strong>: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.9.1.5555.74-80">http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.9.1.5555.74-80</a>]</p><p><em><br /></em></p
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