5 research outputs found

    Examination criteria and calibration procedures for prevention trials of the Early Childhood Caries Collaborating Centers.

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    ObjectivesTo summarize diagnostic criteria and examiner training and calibration of the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research-funded Early Childhood Caries Collaborating Centers (EC4) and report examiner calibration results from 2010 to 2014. The EC4 at Boston University, University of Colorado, and University of California San Francisco are performing randomized controlled early childhood caries (ECC) prevention trials with caries as the main outcome measure.MethodsThe EC4 with University of Iowa consultants developed standardized tooth and tooth surface status examination criteria for use in field conditions, examiner training materials, and examiner calibration and re-calibration methodologies. Calibration and re-calibration were performed with 1- to 5-year-old children in the San Francisco Mission District in which assessments from each examiner to be calibrated were compared with those from a single gold standard examiner from 2010 to 2014. Cohen's kappa statistic was used to determine inter-examiner agreement.ResultsA total of seven examiners were successfully (re)calibrated during that period, examining a total of 231 children. Overall unweighted Cohen's kappas for 10 surface conditions exceeded the criterion of 0.70. However, separate agreement for assessment of noncavitated lesions, as in other studies, was lower.ConclusionsAn experienced multidisciplinary and multi-institutional team was able to develop criteria and training materials to anticipate situations and field conditions the main trials would encounter. Examiners were successfully trained and (re)calibrated

    Recruitment for health disparities preventive intervention trials: the early childhood caries collaborating centers.

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    BackgroundFour trials of interventions designed to prevent early childhood caries are using community-engagement strategies to improve recruitment of low-income, racial/ethnic minority participants. The trials are being implemented by 3 centers funded by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research and known as the Early Childhood Caries Collaborating Centers (EC4): the Center for Native Oral Health Research at the University of Colorado, the Center to Address Disparities in Children's Oral Health at the University of California San Francisco, and the Center for Research to Evaluate and Eliminate Dental Disparities at Boston University.Community contextThe community contexts for the EC4 trials include urban public housing developments, Hispanic communities near the US-Mexican border, and rural American Indian reservations. These communities have a high prevalence of early childhood caries, suggesting the need for effective, culturally acceptable interventions.MethodsEach center's intervention(s) used community-based participatory research approaches, identified community partners, engaged the community through various means, and developed communication strategies to enhance recruitment.OutcomeAll 3 centers have completed recruitment. Each center implemented several new strategies and approaches to enhance recruitment efforts, such as introducing new communication techniques, using media such as radio and newspapers to spread awareness about the studies, and hosting community gatherings.InterpretationUsing multiple strategies that build trust in the community, are sensitive to cultural norms, and are adaptable to the community environment can enhance recruitment in underserved communities

    The basic research factors questionnaire for studying early childhood caries

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    Abstract Background We describe development of the Early Childhood Caries (ECC) Basic Research Factors Questionnaire (BRFQ), a battery of measures assessing common potential predictors, mediators, and moderators of ECC. Individual-, family-, and community-level factors that are linked to oral health outcomes across at-risk populations are included. Developing standard measures of factors implicated in ECC has the potential to enhance our ability to understand mechanisms underlying successful prevention and to develop more effective interventions. Methods The Early Childhood Caries Collaborating Centers (EC4), funded by National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, developed the BRFQ, which was used across four randomized trials to develop and test interventions for reducing ECC in at-risk populations. Forty-five investigators from across the centers and NIDCR were involved in the development process. Eight “measures working groups” identified relevant constructs and effective measurement approaches, which were then categorized as “essential” or “optional” common data elements (CDEs) for the EC4 projects. Results Essential CDEs include 88 items, with an additional 177 measures categorized as optional CDEs. Essential CDEs fell under the following domains: oral health knowledge, oral health behavior, utilization/insurance and cost, parent/caregiver dental self-efficacy, quality of life, caregiver and family characteristics, and child characteristics. Conclusions The BRFQ makes available a battery of measures that support efforts to understand population risk factors for ECC and to compare oral health outcomes across populations at risk. The BRFQ development process may be useful to other clinical research networks and consortia developing CDEs in other health research fields. Trial registration All the trial that used the BRFQ were registered at Clinicaltrial.gov NCT01116726 , April 29, 2010; NCT01116739 , May 3, 2010; NCT01129440 , May 21, 2010; and NCT01205971 , September 19, 2010