518 research outputs found

    Axion perturbation spectra in string cosmologies

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    We discuss the semi-classical perturbation spectra produced in the massless fields of the low energy string action in a pre big bang type scenario. Axion fields may possess an almost scale-invariant spectrum on large scales dependent upon the evolution of the dilaton and moduli fields to which they are coupled. As an example we calculate the spectra for three axion fields present in a truncated type IIB model and show that they are related with at least one of the fields having a scale-invariant or red perturbation spectrum. In the simplest pre big bang scenario this may be inconsistent with the observed isotropy of the microwave background. More generally, relations between the perturbation spectra in low energy string cosmologies reflect the symmetries of the theory.Comment: 9 pages, latex with epsf, 1 figure. Revised estimate of amplitude of density perturbations and extended discussion of possible conflict with isotropy of cosmic microwave background. To appear in Physics Letters

    Instantons from Low Energy String Actions

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    We look for instanton solutions in a class of two scalar field gravity models, which includes the low energy string action in four dimensions. In models where the matter field has a potential with a false vacuum, we find that non-singular instantons exist as long as the Dilaton field found in string theory has a potential with a minimum, and provide an example of such an instanton. The class of singular instanton solutions are also examined, and we find that depending on the parameter values, the volume factor of the Euclidean region does not always vanish fast enough at the singularity to make the action finite.Comment: revtex 6 pages with 3 figures. Minor numerical correction mad

    Vortex-Antivortex Pair Production in a First Order Phase Transition

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    We carry out numerical simulation of a first order phase transition in 2+1 dimensions by randomly nucleating bubbles, and study the formation of global U(1) vortices. Bubbles grow and coalesce and vortices are formed at junctions of bubbles via standard Kibble mechanism as well as due to a new mechanism, recently proposed by us, where defect-antidefect pairs are produced due to field oscillations. We make a comparative study of the contribution of both of these mechanisms for vortex production. We find that, for high nucleation rate of bubbles, vortex-antivortex pairs produced via the new mechanism have overlapping configurations, and annihilate quickly; so only those vortices survive till late which are produced via the Kibble mechanism. However, for low nucleation rates, bubble collisions are energetic enough to lead to many well separated vortex-antivortex pairs being produced via the new mechanism. For example, in a simulation involving nucleation of 20 bubbles, a total of 14 non-overlapping vortices and antivortices formed via this new mechanism of pair creation (6 of them being very well separated), as compared to 6 vortices and antivortices produced via the Kibble mechanism. Our results show the possibility that in extremely energetic bubble collisions, such as those in the inflationary models of the early Universe, this new mechanism may drastically affect the defect production scenario.Comment: 8 pages, Revtex, 14 figures. Figs.1a,b and 5a,d are included, rest are availaible on reques

    Reconstructing the Equation of State of Tachyon

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    Recent progress in theoretical physics suggests that the dark energy in the universe might be resulted from the rolling tachyon field of string theory. Measurements to SNe Ia can be helpful to reconstruct the equation of state of the rolling tachyon which is a possible candidate of dark energy. We present a numerical analysis for the evolution of the equation of state of the rolling tachyon and derive the reconstruction equations for the equation of state as well as the potential.Comment: 6 pages, 3 figures, to appear Phys. Rev.

    Braneworld Dynamics of Inflationary Cosmologies with Exponential Potentials

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    In this work we consider Randall-Sundrum braneworld type scenarios, in which the spacetime is described by a five-dimensional manifold with matter fields confined in a domain wall or three-brane. We present the results of a systematic analysis, using dynamical systems techniques, of the qualitative behaviour of Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker type models, whose matter is described by a scalar field with an exponential potential. We construct the state spaces for these models and discuss how their structure changes with respect to the general-relativistic case, in particular, what new critical points appear and their nature and the occurrence of bifurcation.Comment: 15 pages, 9 figures, RevTex 4. Submitted to Physical Review

    Search for the most stable massive state in superstring theory

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    In ten dimensional type II superstring, all perturbative massive states are unstable, typically with a short lifetime compared to the string scale. We find that the lifetime of the average string state of mass M has the asymptotic form T < const.1/(g^2 M). The most stable string state seems to be a certain state with high angular momentum which can be classically viewed as a circular string rotating in several planes ("the rotating ring"), predominantly decaying by radiating soft massless NS-NS particles, with a lifetime T = c_0 M^5/g^2. Remarkably, the dominant channel is the decay into a similar rotating ring state of smaller mass. The total lifetime to shrink to zero size is ~ M^7. In the presence of D branes, decay channels involving open strings in the final state are exponentially suppressed, so the lifetime is still proportional to M^5, except for a D brane at a special angle or flux. For large mass, the spectrum for massless emission exhibits qualitative features typical of a thermal spectrum, such as a maximum and an exponential tail. We also discuss the decay properties of rotating rings in the case of compact dimensions.Comment: 24 pages, 1 figure. Correction on lifetime of average stat

    Growth of Inflaton Perturbations and the Post-Inflation Era in Supersymmetric Hybrid Inflation Models

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    It has been shown that hybrid inflation may end with the formation of non-topological solitons of inflaton field. As a first step towards a fully realistic picture of the post-inflation era and reheating in supersymmetric hybrid inflation models, we study the classical scalar field equations of a supersymmetric hybrid inflation model using a semi-analytical ansatz for the spatial dependence of the fields. Using the minimal D-term inflation model as an example, the inflaton field is evolved using the full 1-loop effective potential from the slow-rolling era to the U(1)_{FI} symmetry-breaking phase transition. Spatial perturbations of the inflaton corresponding to quantum fluctuations are introduced for the case where there is spatially coherent U(1)_{FI} symmetry breaking. The maximal growth of the dominant perturbation is found to depend only on the ratio of superpotential coupling \lambda to the gauge coupling g. The inflaton condensate fragments to non-topological solitons for \lambda/g > 0.09. Possible consequences of non-topological soliton formation in fully realistic SUSY hybrid inflation models are discussed.Comment: 27 pages LaTeX, 8 figures. Additional references and discussio

    Searching for Signatures of Cosmic Superstrings in the CMB

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    Because cosmic superstrings generically form junctions and gauge theoretic strings typically do not, junctions may provide a signature to distinguish between cosmic superstrings and gauge theoretic cosmic strings. In cosmic microwave background anisotropy maps, cosmic strings lead to distinctive line discontinuities. String junctions lead to junctions in these line discontinuities. In turn, edge detection algorithms such as the Canny algorithm can be used to search for signatures of strings in anisotropy maps. We apply the Canny algorithm to simulated maps which contain the effects of cosmic strings with and without string junctions. The Canny algorithm produces edge maps. To distinguish between edge maps from string simulations with and without junctions, we examine the density distribution of edges and pixels crossed by edges. We find that in string simulations without Gaussian noise (such as produced by the dominant inflationary fluctuations) our analysis of the output data from the Canny algorithm can clearly distinguish between simulations with and without string junctions. In the presence of Gaussian noise at the level expected from the current bounds on the contribution of cosmic strings to the total power spectrum of density fluctuations, the distinction between models with and without junctions is more difficult. However, by carefully analyzing the data the models can still be differentiated.Comment: 15 page

    The bispectrum of matter perturbations from cosmic strings

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    We present the first calculation of the bispectrum of the matter perturbations induced by cosmic strings. The calculation is performed in two different ways: the first uses the unequal time correlators (UETCs) of the string network - computed using a Gaussian model previously employed for cosmic string power spectra. The second approach uses the wake model, where string density perturbations are concentrated in sheet-like structures whose surface density grows with time. The qualitative and quantitative agreement of the two gives confidence to the results. An essential ingredient in the UETC approach is the inclusion of compensation factors in the integration with the Green's function of the matter and radiation fluids, and we show that these compensation factors must be included in the wake model also. We also present a comparison of the UETCs computed in the Gaussian model, and those computed in the unconnected segment model (USM) used by the standard cosmic string perturbation package CMBACT. We compare numerical estimates for the bispectrum of cosmic strings to those produced by perturbations from an inflationary era, and discover that, despite the intrinsically non-Gaussian nature of string-induced perturbations, the matter bispectrum is unlikely to produce competitive constraints on a population of cosmic strings
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