7,695 research outputs found

    Inclusion of non-spherical components of the Pauli blocking operator in (p,p') reactions

    Full text link
    We present the first calculations of proton elastic and inelastic scattering in which the Pauli blocking operator contains the leading non-spherical components as well as the usual spherical (angle-averaged) part. We develop a formalism for including the contributions to the effective nucleon-nucleon interaction from the resulting new G-matrix elements that extend the usual two-nucleon spin structure and may not conserve angular momentum. We explore the consequences of parity conservation, time reversal invariance, and nucleon-nucleon antisymmetrization for the new effective interaction. Changes to the calculated cross section and spin observables are small in the energy range from 100 to 200 MeV.Comment: 24 pages, 4 figures, to be published in Physical Review

    Gas of self-avoiding loops on the brickwork lattice

    Full text link
    An exact calculation of the phase diagram for a loop gas model on the brickwork lattice is presented. The model includes a bending energy. In the dense limit, where all the lattice sites are occupied, a phase transition occuring at an asymmetric Lifshitz tricritical point is observed as the temperature associated with the bending energy is varied. Various critical exponents are calculated. At lower densities, two lines of transitions (in the Ising universality class) are observed, terminated by a tricritical point, where there is a change in the modulation of the correlation function. To each tricritical point an associated disorder line is found.Comment: 19 pages, 6 figures. to appear in J. Phys. A : Math. & Ge

    Holocene-Neogene volcanism in northeastern Australia: chronology and eruption history

    Get PDF
    Quaternary and late Neogene volcanism is widespread in northeastern Australia, producing at least 397 eruptions covering more than 20,000 km2, including at least 20 flows over 50 km long. Despite this abundance of young volcanism, before this study numerous eruptions had tentative ages or were undated, and the area requires a comprehensive evaluation of eruption patterns through time. To help address these issues we applied multi-collector ARGUS-V 40Ar/39Ar geochronology to determine the age of four of the younger extensive flows: Undara (160 km long, 189 ± 4/4 ka; 2σ, with full analytical/external uncertainties), Murronga (40 km long, 153 ± 5/5 ka), Toomba (120 km long, 21 ± 3/3 ka), and Kinrara (55 km long, 7 ± 2/2 ka). Verbal traditions of the Gugu Badhun Aboriginal people contain features that may potentially describe the eruption of Kinrara. If the traditions do record this eruption, they would have been passed down for 230 ± 70 generations – a period of time exceeding the earliest written historical records. To further examine north Queensland volcanism through time we compiled a database of 337 ages, including 179 previously unpublished K-Ar and radiocarbon results. The compiled ages demonstrate that volcanic activity has occurred without major time breaks since at least 9 Ma. The greatest frequency of eruptions occurred in the last 2 Ma, with an average recurrence interval of <10–22 ka between eruptions. Activity was at times likely more frequent than these calculations indicate, as the geochronologic dataset is incomplete, with undated eruptions, and intraplate volcanism is often episodic. The duration, frequency, and youthfulness of activity indicate that north Queensland volcanism should be considered as potentially still active, and there are now two confirmed areas of Holocene volcanism in eastern Australia – one at each end of the continent. More broadly, our data provides another example of 40Ar/39Ar geochronology applied to Holocene and latest Pleistocene mafic eruptions, further demonstrating that this method has the ability to examine eruptions and hazards at the youngest volcanoes on Earth

    A Shell of Thermal X-ray Emission Associated with the Young Crab-like Remnant 3C58

    Full text link
    Deep X-ray imaging spectroscopy of the bright pulsar wind nebula 3C58 confirms the existence of an embedded thermal X-ray shell surrounding the pulsar PSR J0205+6449. Radially resolved spectra obtained with the XMM-Newton telescope are well-characterized by a power-law model with the addition of a soft thermal emission component in varying proportions. These fits reproduce the well-studied increase in the spectral index with radius attributed to synchrotron burn-off of high energy electrons. Most interestingly, a radially resolved thermal component is shown to map out a shell-like structure ~6' in diameter. The presence of a strong emission line corresponding to the Ne IX He-like transition requires an overabundance of ~3 x [Ne/Ne(sun)] in the Raymond-Smith plasma model. The best-fit temperature kT ~ 0.23 keV is essentially independent of radius for the derived column density of N_H = (4.2 +/- 0.1)E21 per cm squared. Our result suggests that thermal shells can be obscured in the early evolution of a supernova remnant by non-thermal pulsar wind nebulae emission; the luminosity of the 3C58 shell is more than an order of magnitude below the upper limit on a similar shell in the Crab Nebula. We find the shell centroid to be offset from the pulsar location. If this neutron star has a velocity similar to that of the Crab pulsar, we derive an age of 3700 yr and a velocity vector aligned with the long axis of the PWN. The shell parameters and pulsar offset add to the accumulating evidence that 3C58 is not the remnant of the supernova of CE 1181.Comment: 7 pages, 8 figures, 2 tables, Latex emulateapj style. To appear in the Astrophysical Journa

    Conservation of the Okapi Wildlife Reserve, Zaïre

    Get PDF
    The Okapi Wildlife Reserve was created in May 1992 to conserve a representative area of the Ituri rainforest in north-eastern Zaïre. This article examines the threats facing this large protected area and summarizes the management actions proposed to address these problems within the next 10 years. Emphasis is placed on the need to integrate the local population into reserve management and to empower people as much as possible to manage their own resources. The long-term future of the reserve in the context of national economic and political instability is discusse

    Australian rock coasts : review and prospects

    Full text link
    Studies of Australian rock coasts (except carbonate reefs) are reviewed and considered in view of recent process and morphological studies. The unique nature of the Australian coast, its geographical distribution and relative stability mean that it is a productive environment in which to research fundamental questions concerning rock coasts. Future research directions are identified, specifically in the areas of processes, morphology and modelling. <br /

    Effect of antiferromagnetic exchange interactions on the Glauber dynamics of one-dimensional Ising models

    Full text link
    We study the effect of antiferromagnetic interactions on the single spin-flip Glauber dynamics of two different one-dimensional (1D) Ising models with spin ±1\pm 1. The first model is an Ising chain with antiferromagnetic exchange interaction limited to nearest neighbors and subject to an oscillating magnetic field. The system of master equations describing the time evolution of sublattice magnetizations can easily be solved within a linear field approximation and a long time limit. Resonant behavior of the magnetization as a function of temperature (stochastic resonance) is found, at low frequency, only when spins on opposite sublattices are uncompensated owing to different gyromagnetic factors (i.e., in the presence of a ferrimagnetic short range order). The second model is the axial next-nearest neighbor Ising (ANNNI) chain, where an antiferromagnetic exchange between next-nearest neighbors (nnn) is assumed to compete with a nearest-neighbor (nn) exchange interaction of either sign. The long time response of the model to a weak, oscillating magnetic field is investigated in the framework of a decoupling approximation for three-spin correlation functions, which is required to close the system of master equations. The calculation, within such an approximate theoretical scheme, of the dynamic critical exponent z, defined as 1/τ(1/ξ)z{1/\tau} \approx ({1/ {\xi}})^z (where \tau is the longest relaxation time and \xi is the correlation length of the chain), suggests that the T=0 single spin-flip Glauber dynamics of the ANNNI chain is in a different universality class than that of the unfrustrated Ising chain.Comment: 5 figures. Phys. Rev. B (accepted July 12, 2007

    An experimental investigation of chatter effects on tool life

    Get PDF
    Tool wear is one of the most important considerations in machining operations as it affects surface quality and integrity, productivity and cost. The most commonly used model for tool life analysis is the one proposed by F.W. Taylor about a century ago. Although the extended form of this equation includes the effects of important cutting conditions on tool wear, tool life studies are mostly performed under stable cutting conditions where the effect of chatter vibrations are not considered. This paper presents an empirical attempt to understand tool life under vibratory cutting conditions. Tool wear data are collected in turning and milling on different work materials under stable and chatter conditions. The effects of cutting conditions as well as severity of chatter on tool life are analyzed. The results indicate significant reduction in tool life due to chatter as expected. They also show that the severity of chatter, and thus the vibration amplitude, strongly reduces the life of cutting tools. These results can be useful in evaluating the real cost of chatter by including the reduced tool life. They can also be useful in justifying the cost of chatter suppression and more rigid machining systems
    corecore