1,221 research outputs found

    Universal conductance reduction in a quantum wire

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    Even a single point defect in a quantum wire causes a conductance reduction. In this paper we prove (without any approximations) that for any point impurity this conductance reduction in all the sub-bands is exactly 2e^2/h. Moreover, it is shown that in the case of a surface defect, not only is the conductance minimum independent of the defect characteristics, but the transmission matrix also converges to universal (defect-independent) values. We also discuss particle confinement between two arbitrarily weak point defects.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figures (Revtex

    Potential Barrier Classification by Short-Time Measurement

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    We investigate the short-time dynamics of a delta-function potential barrier on an initially confined wave-packet. There are mainly two conclusions: A) At short times the probability density of the first particles that passed through the barrier is unaffected by it. B) When the barrier is absorptive (i.e., its potential is imaginary) it affects the transmitted wave function at shorter times than a real potential barrier. Therefore, it is possible to distinguish between an imaginary and a real potential barrier by measuring its effect at short times only on the transmitting wavefunction.Comment: 6 pages, 5 figure

    Emergence of a confined state in a weakly bent wire

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    In this paper we use a simple straightforward technique to investigate the emergence of a bound state in a weakly bent wire. We show that the bend behaves like an infinitely shallow potential well, and in the limit of small bending angle and low energy the bend can be presented by a simple 1D delta function potential.Comment: 4 pages, 3 Postscript figures (uses Revtex); added references and rewritte

    Scatterer that leaves "footprints" but no "fingerprints"

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    We calculate the exact transmission coefficient of a quantum wire in the presence of a single point defect at the wire's cut-off frequencies. We show that while the conductance pattern (i.e., the scattering) is strongly affected by the presence of the defect, the pattern is totally independent of the defect's characteristics (i.e., the defect that caused the scattering cannot be identified from that pattern).Comment: 4 pages, 3 figure

    Afterglow Observations Shed New Light on the Nature of X-ray Flashes

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    X-ray flashes (XRFs) and X-ray rich gamma-ray bursts (XRGRBs) share many observational characteristics with long duration GRBs, but the reason for which their prompt emission peaks at lower photon energies, EpE_p, is still under debate. Although many different models have been invoked in order to explain the lower EpE_p values, their implications for the afterglow emission were not considered in most cases, mainly because observations of XRF afterglows have become available only recently. Here we examine the predictions of the various XRF models for the afterglow emission, and test them against the observations of XRF 030723 and XRGRB 041006, the events with the best monitored afterglow light curves in their respective class. We show that most existing XRF models are hard to reconcile with the observed afterglow light curves, which are very flat at early times. Such light curves are, however, naturally produced by a roughly uniform jet with relatively sharp edges that is viewed off-axis (i.e. from outside of the jet aperture). This type of model self consistently accommodates both the observed prompt emission and the afterglow light curves of XRGRB 041006 and XRF 030723, implying viewing angles θobs\theta_{obs} from the jet axis of (θobsθ0)0.15θ0(\theta_{obs}-\theta_0)\sim 0.15\theta_0 and θ0\sim \theta_0, respectively, where θ03\theta_0\sim 3 deg is the jet half-opening angle. This suggests that GRBs, XRGRBs and XRFs are intrinsically similar relativistic jets viewed from different angles, corresponding to γ(θobsθ0)\gamma(\theta_{obs}-\theta_0) of less than 1, between 1 and a few, and more than a few, respectively, where γ\gamma is the Lorentz factor. Future observations with Swift could help test this unification scheme in which GRBs, XRGRBs and XRFs share the same basic physics and differ only by their orientation relative to our line of sight.Comment: some references added, small typos corrected, and the important role of HETE II emphasize

    The Prompt Gamma-Ray and Afterglow Energies of Short-Duration Gamma-Ray Bursts

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    I present an analysis of the gamma-ray and afterglow energies of the complete sample of 17 short duration GRBs with prompt X-ray follow-up. I find that 80% of the bursts exhibit a linear correlation between their gamma-ray fluence and the afterglow X-ray flux normalized to t=1 d, a proxy for the kinetic energy of the blast wave ($F_{X,1}~F_{gamma}^1.01). An even tighter correlation is evident between E_{gamma,iso} and L_{X,1} for the subset of 13 bursts with measured or constrained redshifts. The remaining 20% of the bursts have values of F_{X,1}/F_{gamma} that are suppressed by about three orders of magnitude, likely because of low circumburst densities (Nakar 2007). These results have several important implications: (i) The X-ray luminosity is generally a robust proxy for the blast wave kinetic energy, indicating nu_X>nu_c and hence a circumburst density n>0.05 cm^{-3}; (ii) most short GRBs have a narrow range of gamma-ray efficiency, with ~0.85 and a spread of 0.14 dex; and (iii) the isotropic-equivalent energies span 10^{48}-10^{52} erg. Furthermore, I find tentative evidence for jet collimation in the two bursts with the highest E_{gamma,iso}, perhaps indicative of the same inverse correlation that leads to a narrow distribution of true energies in long GRBs. I find no clear evidence for a relation between the overall energy release and host galaxy type, but a positive correlation with duration may be present, albeit with a large scatter. Finally, I note that the outlier fraction of 20% is similar to the proposed fraction of short GRBs from dynamically-formed neutron star binaries in globular clusters. This scenario may naturally explain the bimodality of the F_{X,1}/F_{gamma} distribution and the low circumburst densities without invoking speculative kick velocities of several hundred km/s.Comment: Submitted to ApJ; 9 pages, 2 figures, 1 tabl