73 research outputs found

    Optimisation of the determination of deoxynivalenol in wheat flour by HPLC and a comparison of four clean-up procedures.

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    The determination of deoxynivalenol (DON) in wheat flour by liquid chromatography with photodiode array (PDA) detection was optimised. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to determine the optimum chromatographic conditions for the determination of DON. The influence of three variables, acetonitrile (ACN) volume in mobile phase (9.5-24.5, v/v), flow rate (0.5-1.5 ml min-1) and wavelength (215-221 nm) on DON peak area was evaluated. The best separation was achieved using a symmetry column (150×3.9 mm; particle size 5 µm) by isocratic elution (1.0 ml min-1) and a mobile phase consisting of ACN/water in the ratio 17:83 (v/v). UV detection was performed at 218 nm. Linear calibration curves were constructed in the concentration range 1-1000 ng ml-1. The detection limit measured as the signal-to-noise ratio (3:1) was 0.03 ng ml-1. RSM results showed that the experimental data could be adequately fitted to a second-order polynomial model with multiple regression coefficients (R2) of 0.968. The efficiency of four clean-up procedures for wheat flour extract was compared. Recovery of DON using a Mycosep #225 column was highest with a value of 99%, while that of Mycosep #227 was 65%. In contrast, DON recovery using immunoaffinity columns (IAC) and an Oasis® HLB column was only 53 and 42%, respectively. The trueness of the method using the Mycosep #225 column was established with a certified reference material CRM 379. The result obtained from three replicates was 0.66±0.04 µg g-1 and the certified value was 0.67 µg g-1

    Natural occurrence of deoxynivalenol (DON) in wheat based noodles consumed in Malaysia

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    In this first study performed in noodle samples consumed in Malaysia for the presence of deoxynivalenol (DON), a total of 135 sample of noodles, comprised of instant noodle, yellow alkaline noodle and white salted noodle, were randomly collected from food stores and analyzed for DON using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a PDA (photodiode array) detector at 218 nm. The objective of this study was to investigate the DON contamination levels in different types of wheat-based noodle consumed in Peninsular Malaysia. An acetonitrile:water (17:83 v/v) mixture was used as a mobile phase and clean-up was accomplished with a Mycosep 225 column. There was a high variation in the DON concentrations in all types of noodle group as well as between brands. Only one sample of instant and yellow alkaline noodle each were contaminated with DON, at concentrations of 1.003 and 1.243 ng/g, respectively. The minimum detectable concentration for the DON was 0.627 ng/g in instant noodle. In the case of white salted noodle, none of the samples contained any detectable amount of DON. The results indicate a low occurrence of DON mycotoxins in commercial noodle products in Malaysia

    Effect of food additives on deoxynivalenol (DON) reduction and quality attributes in steamed-and-fried instant noodles

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    The effect of food additives reduction on quality attributes in steamed-and-fried instant noodles was investigated. Three additives, l-ascorbic acid, l-cysteine, and sodium bisulfite, were evaluated for their effect on deoxynivalenol (DON) reduction and sensory acceptability of instant noodles. After screening the different concentrations of three food additives, the maximum reduction of DON was optimized for the following concentration ranges: l-ascorbic acid, 0–100 μg/g; l-cysteine, 0–300 μg/g; and sodium bisulfite, 0–200 μg/g. The experimental results were fitted to a second-order polynomial model, which gave a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.987. The results indicated that the overall optimal condition resulting in the maximum DON reduction in instant noodles was obtained at the following combined level: sodium bisulfite, 167 μg/g; l-cysteine, 254 μg/g; and l-ascorbic acid, 23 μg/g. The sensory evaluation of noodles with the optimal condition of additives showed that the overall acceptability was in the range of “like slightly” and was not significantly (P > 0.05) different from the control sample. The optimized protocol produced a mixture that can reduce DON in instant noodles up to 67%. Modifying the processing of instant noodles by using additives may be useful to reduce the risk of DON exposure via instant noodles

    Long-term survival in patients with non-small cell lung cancer and synchronous brain metastasis treated with whole-brain radiotherapy and thoracic chemoradiation

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Brain metastases occur in 30-50% of Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and confer a worse prognosis and quality of life. These patients are usually treated with Whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) followed by systemic therapy. Few studies have evaluated the role of chemoradiotherapy to the primary tumor after WBRT as definitive treatment in the management of these patients.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>We reviewed the outcome of 30 patients with primary NSCLC and brain metastasis at diagnosis without evidence of other metastatic sites. Patients were treated with WBRT and after induction chemotherapy with paclitaxel and cisplatin for two cycles. In the absence of progression, concurrent chemoradiotherapy for the primary tumor with weekly paclitaxel and carboplatin was indicated, with a total effective dose of 60 Gy. If disease progression was ruled out, four chemotherapy cycles followed.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Median Progression-free survival (PFS) and Overall survival (OS) were 8.43 ± 1.5 and 31.8 ± 15.8 months, respectively. PFS was 39.5% at 1 year and 24.7% at 2 years. The 1- and 2-year OS rates were 71.1 and 60.2%, respectively. Three-year OS was significantly superior for patients with N0-N1 stage disease vs. N2-N3 (60 vs. 24%, respectively; Response rate [RR], 0.03; <it>p</it>= 0.038).</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>Patients with NSCLC and brain metastasis might benefit from treatment with WBRT and concurrent thoracic chemoradiotherapy. The subgroup of N0-N1 patients appears to achieve the greatest benefit. The result of this study warrants a prospective trial to confirm the benefit of this treatment.</p

    The Distressed Brain: A Group Blind Source Separation Analysis on Tinnitus

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    Background: Tinnitus, the perception of a sound without an external sound source, can lead to variable amounts of distress. Methodology: In a group of tinnitus patients with variable amounts of tinnitus related distress, as measured by the Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ), an electroencephalography (EEG) is performed, evaluating the patients ’ resting state electrical brain activity. This resting state electrical activity is compared with a control group and between patients with low (N = 30) and high distress (N = 25). The groups are homogeneous for tinnitus type, tinnitus duration or tinnitus laterality. A group blind source separation (BSS) analysis is performed using a large normative sample (N = 84), generating seven normative components to which high and low tinnitus patients are compared. A correlation analysis of the obtained normative components ’ relative power and distress is performed. Furthermore, the functional connectivity as reflected by lagged phase synchronization is analyzed between the brain areas defined by the components. Finally, a group BSS analysis on the Tinnitus group as a whole is performed. Conclusions: Tinnitus can be characterized by at least four BSS components, two of which are posterior cingulate based, one based on the subgenual anterior cingulate and one based on the parahippocampus. Only the subgenual component correlates with distress. When performed on a normative sample, group BSS reveals that distress is characterized by two anterior cingulate based components. Spectral analysis of these components demonstrates that distress in tinnitus is relate

    Comparison of Hemaccel and Ringer intravenous infusion on prevention of hypotension in spinal anesthesia

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    History and Objectives: Hypotension during spinal anesthesia is a common complication and can cause sever morbidity and mortality. Due to repeated reports positive preventive effect of hemaccel and in order to compare the effect of colloidal and crystalloid intravenous infusion of hemaccel and Ringer solution and on prevention of hypotension during spinal anesthesia, the present study was carried out on patients referred to the Fatemieh hospital in the city of Hamedan. Materials and Methods: A clinical trials was carried out on 100 patients who were scheduled for post partum tubal ligation with spinal anesthesia. Before anesthesia, heart beet and arterial blood pressure were recorded for all patients. All patients received spinal anesthesia and were randomly divided into two control and case groups. Hemaccel and Ringer (15 ml/Kg) were administered by venous perfusion to case and control, groups respectively. At 1, 5, 10, 15, 30 minutes intervals changes in heart beet and arterial blood pressure and further infusion of Ringer solution and infusion of ephedrine was recorded. Results: 100 patients were equally divided into two groups and were matched for age and duration of surgery. Reduction in heartbeat was less in the case group compare to the control group and arterial blood pressure was 101 and 87 in the case and control group respectively. Need for Ringer solution was 8% and 80% in the case and control groups (P<0.005) and ephedrine requirement was 8% and 60% in the case and control groups respectively (P<0.0005). Conclusion: In high-risk patients (Renal and cardiopulmonary patients), administration of low volume colloidal solution for the prevention of hypotension in the spinal anesthesia is recommended

    Identification of New Quantitative Trait Loci (Other Than the PRNP Gene) Modulating the Scrapie Incubation Period in Sheep

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    Although susceptibility to scrapie is largely controlled by the PRNP gene, we have searched for additional genomic regions that affect scrapie incubation time in sheep, using two half-sib families with a susceptible PRNP genotype and naturally infected by scrapie. Quantitative trait loci were detected on OAR6 and OAR18

    What happens to functional mitral regurgitation after aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis?

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    BACKGROUND: Patients with aortic stenosis (AS) treated with aortic valve replacement (AVR) may also present with associated functional mitral valve regurgitation (FMR). Whether to also address the mitral valve at the time of AVR remains unclear. This study was designed to determine the influence of MR on survival and its evolution over time. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 74 patients with FMR who underwent isolated AVR between 1999 and 2006 at our institution. Inclusion criteria were surgery for AVR with severe AS (mean age, 69 years; N = 47; 64% women) and FMR (grade I, 80%; grade II, 19%; grade III, 1%). Echocardiography follow-up data were obtained by mail questionnaires sent to the referring cardiologists of all survivors. All parameters were analyzed with the Kaplan-Meier method and the sign test. RESULTS: The operative mortality rate was 2%, and 9 patients (12%) died during follow-up. The mean (SD) follow-up time was 48 ± 33 months, and follow-up 96% complete. The follow-up demonstrated a decrease of FMR by 2 degrees in 3 patients (4%), and 1 degree in 14 patients (19%); regurgitation remained unchanged in the majority of patients (n = 47; 63%). FMR worsened in 10 patients overall (14%), and new-onset atrial fibrillation was found in 24 patients (33%); however, the statistical analysis failed to demonstrate an impact of worsening FMR on survival. CONCLUSION: MR in patients with severe AS and FMR at the time of AVR does not appear to worsen significantly over time. Not dealing with the mitral valve at the time of AVR might be warranted for selected patients