673 research outputs found

    The Effects of Amplification Bias in Gravitational Microlensing Experiments

    Full text link
    Although a source star is fainter than the detection limit imposed by crowding, it is still possible to detect an event if the star is located in the seeing disk of a bright star is and gravitationally amplified: amplification bias. Using a well-constrained luminosity function, I show that ∌40%\sim 40\% of events detected toward the Galactic bulge are affected by amplification bias and the optical depth might be overestimated by a factor ∌1.7\sim 1.7. In addition, I show that if one takes amplification bias into consideration, the observed time scale distribution matches significantly better, especially in the short time-scale region, with the distribution expected from a mass-spectrum model in which lenses are composed of the known stellar population plus an additional population of brown dwarfs than it is without the effect of the amplification bias.Comment: 16 pages including 4 figures, ApJ, submitte

    Experimental particle astrophysics

    Get PDF

    Detection Rates for Close Binaries Via Microlensing

    Get PDF
    Microlensing is one of the most promising methods of reconstructing the stellar mass function down to masses even below the hydrogen-burning limit. The fundamental limit to this technique is the presence of unresolved binaries, which can in principle significantly alter the inferred mass function. Here we quantify the fraction of binaries that can be detected using microlensing, considering specifically the mass ratio and separation of the binary. We find that almost all binary systems with separations greater than b∌0.4b \sim 0.4 of their combined Einstein ring radius are detectable assuming a detection threshold of 3%3\%. For two M dwarfs, this corresponds to a limiting separation of \gsim 1 \au. Since very few observed M dwarfs have companions at separations \lsim 1 \au, we conclude that close binaries will probably not corrupt the measurements of the mass function. We find that the detectability depends only weakly on the mass ratio. For those events for which individual masses can be determined, we find that binaries can be detected down to b∌0.2b \sim 0.2.Comment: 19 pages including 6 figures. Uses phyyzx format. Send requests for higher quality figures to [email protected]

    The Origin of Primordial Dwarf Stars and Baryonic Dark Matter

    Full text link
    I present a scenario for the production of low mass, degenerate dwarfs of mass >0.1M⊙>0.1 M_{\odot} via the mechanism of Lenzuni, Chernoff & Salpeter (1992). Such objects meet the mass limit requirements for halo dark matter from microlensing surveys while circumventing the chemical evolution constraints on normal white dwarf stars. I describe methods to observationally constrain this scenario and suggest that such objects may originate in small clusters formed from the thermal instability of shocked, heated gas in dark matter haloes, such as suggested by Fall & Rees (1985) for globular clusters.Comment: TeX, 4 pages plus 2 postscript figures. To appear in Astrophysical Journal Letter

    Towards achieving strong coupling in 3D-cavity with solid state spin resonance

    Full text link
    We investigate the microwave magnetic field confinement in several microwave 3D-cavities, using 3D finite-element analysis to determine the best design and achieve strong coupling between microwave resonant cavity photons and solid state spins. Specifically, we design cavities for achieving strong coupling of electromagnetic modes with an ensemble of nitrogen vacancy (NV) defects in diamond. We report here a novel and practical cavity design with a magnetic filling factor of up to 4 times (2 times higher collective coupling) than previously achieved using 1D superconducting cavities with small mode volume. In addition, we show that by using a double-split resonator cavity, it is possible to achieve up to 200 times better cooperative factor than the currently demonstrated with NV in diamond. These designs open up further opportunities for studying strong and ultra-strong coupling effects on spins in solids using alternative systems with a wider range of design parameters.Comment: 20 pages, 9 figure

    Is the Large Magellanic Cloud a Large Microlensing Cloud?

    Get PDF
    An expression is provided for the self-lensing optical depth of the thin LMC disk surrounded by a shroud of stars at larger scale heights. The formula is written in terms of the vertical velocity dispersion of the thin disk population. If tidal forcing causes 1-5 % of the disk mass to have a height larger than 6 kpc and 10-15 % to have a height above 3 kpc, then the self-lensing optical depth of the LMC is 0.7−1.9×10−70.7 - 1.9 \times 10^{-7}, which is within the observational uncertainties. The shroud may be composed of bright stars provided they are not in stellar hydrodynamical equilibrium. Alternatively, the shroud may be built from low mass stars or compact objects, though then the self-lensing optical depths are overestimates of the true optical depth by a factor of roughly 3. The distributions of timescales of the events and their spatial variation across the face of the LMC disk offer possibilities of identifying the dominant lens population. In propitious circumstances, an experiment lifetime of less than 5 years is sufficient to decide between the competing claims of Milky Way halos and LMC lenses. However, LMC disks can sometimes mimic the microlensing properties of Galactic halos for many years and then decades of survey work are needed. In this case observations of parallax or binary caustic events offer the best hope for current experiments to deduce the lens population. The difficult models to distinguish are Milky Way halos in which the lens fraction is low (< 10 %) and fattened LMC disks composed of lenses with a typical mass of low luminosity stars or greater. A next-generation wide-area microlensing survey, such as the proposed ``SuperMACHO'' experiment, will be able to distinguish even these difficult models with just a year or two of data.Comment: 25 pages, 4 figures, The Astrophysical Journal (in press

    Probing Dark Matter

    Get PDF
    Recent novel observations have probed the baryonic fraction of the galactic dark matter that has eluded astronomers for decades. Late in 1993, the MACHO and EROS collaborations announced in this journal the detection of transient and achromatic brightenings of a handful of stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud that are best interpreted as gravitational microlensing by low-mass foreground objects (MACHOS). This tantalized astronomers, for it implied that the population of cool, compact objects these lenses represent could be the elusive dark matter of our galactic halo. A year later in 1994, Sackett et al. reported the discovery of a red halo in the galaxy NGC 5907 that seems to follow the inferred radial distribution of its dark matter. This suggested that dwarf stars could constitute its missing component. Since NGC 5907 is similar to the Milky Way in type and radius, some surmised that the solution of the galactic dark matter problem was an abundance of ordinary low-mass stars. Now Bahcall et al., using the Wide-Field Camera of the recently repaired Hubble Space Telescope, have dashed this hope.Comment: 3 pages, Plain TeX, no figures, published as a News and Views in Nature 373, 191 (1995

    Large Magellanic Cloud Microlensing Optical Depth with Imperfect Event Selection

    Full text link
    I present a new analysis of the MACHO Project 5.7 year Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) microlensing data set that incorporates the effects of contamination of the microlensing event sample by variable stars. Photometric monitoring of MACHO LMC microlensing event candidates by the EROS and OGLE groups has revealed that one of these events is likely to be a variable star, while additional data has confirmed that many of the other events are very likely to be microlensing. This additional data on the nature of the MACHO microlensing candidates is incorporated into a simple likelihood analysis to derive a probability distribution for the number of MACHO microlens candidates that are true microlensing events. This analysis shows that 10-12 of the 13 events that passed the MACHO selection criteria are likely to be microlensing events, with the other 1-3 being variable stars. This likelihood analysis is also used to show that the main conclusions of the MACHO LMC analysis are unchanged by the variable star contamination. The microlensing optical depth toward the LMC is = 1.0 +/- 0.3 * 10^{-7}. If this is due to microlensing by known stellar populations, plus an additional population of lens objects in the Galactic halo, then the new halo population would account for 16% of the mass of a standard Galactic halo. The MACHO detection exceeds the expected background of 2 events expected from ordinary stars in standard models of the Milky Way and LMC at the 99.98% confidence level. The background prediction is increased to 3 events if maximal disk models are assumed for both the MilkyWay and LMC, but this model fails to account for the full signal seen by MACHO at the 99.8% confidence level.Comment: 20 pages, 2 postscript figues, accepted by Ap
    • 

    corecore