36,954 research outputs found

    Signal conditioner for potentiometer type transducers

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    Low cost method is described for signal conditioning of pot-type transducers utilizing printed circuitry. Conditioner fits into standard rack, accommodates 56 channels, and can be operated by one attendant

    Phase Transitions in "Small" Systems - A Challenge for Thermodynamics

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    Traditionally, phase transitions are defined in the thermodynamic limit only. We propose a new formulation of equilibrium thermo-dynamics that is based entirely on mechanics and reflects just the {\em geometry and topology} of the N-body phase-space as function of the conserved quantities, energy, particle number and others. This allows to define thermo-statistics {\em without the use of the thermodynamic limit}, to apply it to ``Small'' systems as well and to define phase transitions unambiguously also there. ``Small'' systems are systems where the linear dimension is of the characteristic range of the interaction between the particles. Also astrophysical systems are ``Small'' in this sense. Boltzmann defines the entropy as the logarithm of the area W(E,N)=eS(E,N)W(E,N)=e^{S(E,N)} of the surface in the mechanical N-body phase space at total energy E. The topology of S(E,N) or more precisely, of the curvature determinant D(E,N)=2S/E22S/N2(2S/EN)2D(E,N)=\partial^2S/\partial E^2*\partial^2S/\partial N^2-(\partial^2S/\partial E\partial N)^2 allows the classification of phase transitions {\em without taking the thermodynamic limit}. The topology gives further a simple and transparent definition of the {\em order parameter.} Attention: Boltzmann's entropy S(E) as defined here is different from the information entropy and can even be non-extensive and convex.Comment: 8 pages, 4 figures, Invited paper for CRIS200

    Microcanonical Thermostatistics, the basis for a New Thermodynamics, "heat can flow from cold to hot", and nuclear multifragmentation. The correct treatment of Phase Separation after 150 years of statistical mechanics

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    Equilibrium statistics of finite Hamiltonian systems is fundamentally described by the microcanonical ensemble (ME). Canonical, or grand-canonical partition functions are deduced from this by Laplace transform. Only in the thermodynamic limit are they equivalent to ME for homogeneous systems. Therefore ME is the only ensemble for non-extensive/inhomogeneous systems like nuclei or stars where the limN,ρ=N/V=const\lim_{N\to \infty,\rho=N/V=const} does not exist. Conventional canonical thermo-statistic is inapplicable for non-extensive systems. This has far reaching fundamental and quite counter-intuitive consequences for thermo-statistics in general: Phase transitions of first order are signaled by convexities of S(E,N,Z,...)S(E,N,Z,...) \cite{gross174}. Here the heat capacity is {\em negative}. In these cases heat can flow from cold to hot! The original task of thermodynamics, the description of boiling water in heat engines can now be treated. Consequences of this basic peculiarity for nuclear statistics as well for the fundamental understanding of Statistical Mechanics in general are discussed. Experiments on hot nuclei show all these novel phenomena in a rich variety. The close similarity to inhomogeneous astro physical systems will be pointed out. \keyword{Microcanonical statistics, first order transitions, phase separation, steam engines, nuclear multifragmentation, negative heat capacity}Comment: 6 pages, 3 figures, Invited plenary talk at VI Latin American Symposium on Nuclear Physics and Applications, Iguaz\'u, Argentina. October 3 to 7, 200