24 research outputs found

    Standards of Care for the Health of Transgender and Gender Diverse People, Version 8

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    Background: Transgender healthcare is a rapidly evolving interdisciplinary field. In the last decade, there has been an unprecedented increase in the number and visibility of transgender and gender diverse (TGD) people seeking support and gender-affirming medical treatment in parallel with a significant rise in the scientific literature in this area. The World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH) is an international, multidisciplinary, professional association whose mission is to promote evidence-based care, education, research, public policy, and respect in transgender health. One of the main functions of WPATH is to promote the highest standards of health care for TGD people through the Standards of Care (SOC). The SOC was initially developed in 1979 and the last version (SOC-7) was published in 2012. In view of the increasing scientific evidence, WPATH commissioned a new version of the Standards of Care, the SOC-8. Aim: The overall goal of SOC-8 is to provide health care professionals (HCPs) with clinical guidance to assist TGD people in accessing safe and effective pathways to achieving lasting personal comfort with their gendered selves with the aim of optimizing their overall physical health, psychological well-being, and self-fulfillment. Methods: The SOC-8 is based on the best available science and expert professional consensus in transgender health. International professionals and stakeholders were selected to serve on the SOC-8 committee. Recommendation statements were developed based on data derived from independent systematic literature reviews, where available, background reviews and expert opinions. Grading of recommendations was based on the available evidence supporting interventions, a discussion of risks and harms, as well as the feasibility and acceptability within different contexts and country settings. Results: A total of 18 chapters were developed as part of the SOC-8. They contain recommendations for health care professionals who provide care and treatment for TGD people. Each of the recommendations is followed by explanatory text with relevant references. General areas related to transgender health are covered in the chapters Terminology, Global Applicability, Population Estimates, and Education. The chapters developed for the diverse population of TGD people include Assessment of Adults, Adolescents, Children, Nonbinary, Eunuchs, and Intersex Individuals, and people living in Institutional Environments. Finally, the chapters related to gender-affirming treatment are Hormone Therapy, Surgery and Postoperative Care, Voice and Communication, Primary Care, Reproductive Health, Sexual Health, and Mental Health. Conclusions: The SOC-8 guidelines are intended to be flexible to meet the diverse health care needs of TGD people globally. While adaptable, they offer standards for promoting optimal health care and guidance for the treatment of people experiencing gender incongruence. As in all previous versions of the SOC, the criteria set forth in this document for gender-affirming medical interventions are clinical guidelines; individual health care professionals and programs may modify these in consultation with the TGD person

    Prise en charge des voies aériennes – 1re partie – Recommandations lorsque des difficultés sont constatées chez le patient inconscient/anesthésié

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    Electrophysiological Study of Femoral Nerve Function After a Continuous Femoral Nerve Block for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

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    A continuous femoral nerve block (CFNB) is an effective analgesic treatment after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction but may result in transient femoral nerve injuries and quadriceps muscle weakness, which in turn contribute to worsened functional outcomes. To compare electrophysiological criteria of a femoral nerve injury as well as functional and pain-related outcomes after ACL reconstruction when analgesia was provided by a CFNB or intravenous patient-controlled analgesic of morphine (IV PCA). Randomized controlled clinical trial; Level of evidence, 1. A total of 74 patients scheduled for ACL reconstruction were randomized to receive a CFNB before surgery, followed by a ropivacaine infusion for 2 days and oxycodone, or IV PCA. The primary outcome was the rate of femoral nerve injuries at 4 weeks postoperatively, defined as a reduction of the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) area from the vastus medialis muscle after supramaximal femoral nerve stimulation at the groin, associated with an absent H-reflex of the femoral nerve and signs of vastus medialis muscle denervation. Secondary functional outcomes were quadriceps muscle strength, active flexion range, and distance walked, as measured on postoperative days 1 and 2. Secondary pain-related outcomes were IV morphine consumption and pain scores at rest and on movement in phase 1 recovery and on postoperative days 1 and 2. No patients met the electrophysiological criteria of a femoral nerve injury. The mean CMAP area at 4 weeks was equivalent in both the CFNB and IV PCA groups (47 ± 16 mV·ms and 51 ± 13 mV·ms, respectively; P = .50). While no differences were detected in functional outcomes or pain scores, the consumption of an IV morphine equivalent was reduced by the administration of a CFNB in phase 1 recovery (6 ± 5 mg and 13 ± 7 mg, respectively; P = .0003), on postoperative day 1 (6 ± 7 mg and 19 ± 17 mg, respectively; P = .0005), and on postoperative day 2 (11 ± 10 mg and 19 ± 17 mg, respectively; P = .03) compared with an IV PCA. Despite prior contrary reports, a CFNB did not result in femoral nerve injuries or worsened functional outcomes after ACL reconstruction. The improvement of analgesia with a CFNB was only marginal and not clinically relevant beyond 24 hours. Registration: NCT01321138 ( ClinicalTrials.gov identifier)

    Reduced hemidiaphragmatic paresis with extrafascial compared with conventional intrafascial tip placement for continuous interscalene brachial plexus block: a randomized, controlled, double-blind trial.

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    The incidence of hemidiaphragmatic paresis with continuous interscalene brachial plexus block (CISB) can approach 100%. We tested the hypothesis that extrafascial placement of the catheter tip reduces the rate of hemidiaphragmatic paresis compared with intrafascial tip placement for CISB while providing effective analgesia. Seventy patients undergoing elective major shoulder surgery under general anaesthesia were randomized to receive an ultrasound-guided CISB plexus block for analgesia with the catheter tip placed either within (intrafascial group) or immediately outside (extrafascial group) the brachial plexus sheath midway between the levels of C5 and C6. Catheters were bolus dosed with ropivacaine 0.5% 20 ml before surgery, followed by an infusion of ropivacaine 0.2% at 4 ml h -1 for the first 2 days after surgery. The primary outcome was hemidiaphragmatic paresis measured by M-mode ultrasonography on postoperative day (POD) 1. Secondary outcomes included forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 s, and rest pain scores. The incidence of hemidiaphragmatic paresis on POD 1 was significantly reduced in the extrafascial group {intrafascial, 41% [95% confidence interval (CI) 25-59%]; extrafascial, 15% (95% CI 5-32%); P =0.01}. We were unable to detect a difference between groups in any of the functional respiratory outcomes or in rest pain scores [numerical rating scale (1-10): intrafascial, 3 (95% CI 2-3); extrafascial, 3 (95% CI: 2-4); P =0.93] on POD 1. Placement of the catheter tip immediately outside of the brachial plexus sheath reduced the incidence of hemidiaphragmatic paresis on POD 1 associated with ultrasound-guided CISB while providing effective analgesia after major shoulder surgery. Our results do not support the routine placement of the catheter tip within the brachial plexus sheath for CISB. NCT02433561

    Comparison of peripheral nerve blockade characteristics between non-diabetic patients and patients suffering from diabetic neuropathy: a prospective cohort study.

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    Animal data have demonstrated increased block duration after local anaesthetic injections in diabetic rat models. Whether the same is true in humans is currently undefined. We, therefore, undertook this prospective cohort study to test the hypothesis that type-2 diabetic patients suffering from diabetic peripheral neuropathy would have increased block duration after ultrasound-guided popliteal sciatic nerve block when compared with patients without neuropathy. Thirty-three type-2 diabetic patients with neuropathy and 23 non-diabetic control patients, scheduled for fore-foot surgery, were included prospectively. All patients received an ultrasound-guided popliteal sciatic nerve block with a 30 ml 1:1 mixture of lidocaine 1% and bupivacaine 0.5%. The primary outcome was time to first opioid request after block procedure. Secondary outcomes included the time to onset of sensory blockade, and pain score at rest on postoperative day 1 (numeric rating scale 0-10). These outcomes were analysed using an accelerated failure time regression model. Patients in the diabetic peripheral neuropathy group had significantly prolonged median (IQR [range]) time to first opioid request (diabetic peripheral neuropathy group 1440 (IQR 1140-1440 [180-1440]) min vs. control group 710 (IQR 420-1200 [150-1440] min, p = 0.0004). Diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients had a time ratio of 1.57 (95%CI 1.10-2.23, p < 0.01), experienced a 59% shorter time to onset of sensory blockade (median time ratio 0.41 (95%CI 0.28-0.59), p < 0.0001) and had lower median (IQR [range]) pain scores at rest on postoperative day 1 (diabetic peripheral neuropathy group 0 (IQR 0-1 [0-5]) vs. control group 3 (IQR 0-5 [0-9]), p = 0.001). In conclusion, after an ultrasound-guided popliteal sciatic nerve block, patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy demonstrated reduced time to onset of sensory blockade, with increased time to first opioid request when compared with patients without neuropathy