108 research outputs found

    The power of voting and corruption cycles

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    We introduce an evolutionary dynamical model for corruption in a democratic state describing the interactions between citizens, government and officials, where the voting power of the citizens is the main mechanism to control corruption. Three main scenarios for the evolution of corruption emerge depending on the efficiency of the institutions and the social, political, and economic characteristics of the State. Efficient institutions can create a corruption intolerant self-reinforcing mechanism. The lack of political choices, weaknesses of institutions and vote buying can create a self-reinforcing mechanism of corruption. The ambition of the rulers can induce high levels of corruption that can be fought by the voting power of the citizens creating corruption cycles

    Environmental Levels of the Antiviral Oseltamivir Induce Development of Resistance Mutation H274Y in Influenza A/H1N1 Virus in Mallards

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    Oseltamivir (Tamiflu®) is the most widely used drug against influenza infections and is extensively stockpiled worldwide as part of pandemic preparedness plans. However, resistance is a growing problem and in 2008–2009, seasonal human influenza A/H1N1 virus strains in most parts of the world carried the mutation H274Y in the neuraminidase gene which causes resistance to the drug. The active metabolite of oseltamivir, oseltamivir carboxylate (OC), is poorly degraded in sewage treatment plants and surface water and has been detected in aquatic environments where the natural influenza reservoir, dabbling ducks, can be exposed to the substance. To assess if resistance can develop under these circumstances, we infected mallards with influenza A/H1N1 virus and exposed the birds to 80 ng/L, 1 µg/L and 80 µg/L of OC through their sole water source. By sequencing the neuraminidase gene from fecal samples, we found that H274Y occurred at 1 µg/L of OC and rapidly dominated the viral population at 80 µg/L. IC50 for OC was increased from 2–4 nM in wild-type viruses to 400–700 nM in H274Y mutants as measured by a neuraminidase inhibition assay. This is consistent with the decrease in sensitivity to OC that has been noted among human clinical isolates carrying H274Y. Environmental OC levels have been measured to 58–293 ng/L during seasonal outbreaks and are expected to reach µg/L-levels during pandemics. Thus, resistance could be induced in influenza viruses circulating among wild ducks. As influenza viruses can cross species barriers, oseltamivir resistance could spread to human-adapted strains with pandemic potential disabling oseltamivir, a cornerstone in pandemic preparedness planning. We propose surveillance in wild birds as a measure to understand the resistance situation in nature and to monitor it over time. Strategies to lower environmental levels of OC include improved sewage treatment and, more importantly, a prudent use of antivirals

    Fate and Uptake of Pharmaceuticals in Soil–Plant Systems

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    Pharmaceuticals have been detected in the soil environment where there is the potential for uptake into crops. This study explored the fate and uptake of pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, diclofenac, fluoxetine, propranolol, sulfamethazine) and a personal care product (triclosan) in soil–plant systems using radish (Raphanus sativus) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Five of the six chemicals were detected in plant tissue. Carbamazepine was taken up to the greatest extent in both the radish (52 μg/g) and ryegrass (33 μg/g), whereas sulfamethazine uptake was below the limit of quantitation (LOQ) (<0.01 μg/g). In the soil, concentrations of diclofenac and sulfamethazine dropped below the LOQ after 7 days. However, all pharmaceuticals were still detectable in the pore water at the end of the experiment. The results demonstrate the ability of plant species to accumulate pharmaceuticals from soils with uptake apparently specific to both plant species and chemical. Results can be partly explained by the hydrophobicity and extent of ionization of each chemical in the soil

    Data for: Evolution in a General Equilibrium framework

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    Is an evolutive model in the framework of the General Equilibrium TheoryIn this work, we consider a general equilibrium model in which an economy is characterized bythe distribution of firms on the branches of industry. We will show that it is possible to build a dynamicbased on the decisions of the managers or owners of the firms.Their investment decisions will cause the distribution of the firms in the branches of production to be modified,which will result in price changes. In a neighborhood of a singularity, these decisions,even when they are small, could lead to abrupt and unexpected changes in the behavior of the economy.It is for this reason that we say that singular economies are the prelude to economic crises. In opposite,in a neighborhood of a regular economy, small changes in the decisions of the managers do not implybig changes in the posterior behavior of the economy

    Data for: Evolution in a General Equilibrium framework

    No full text
    Is an evolutive model in the framework of the General Equilibrium TheoryIn this work, we consider a general equilibrium model in which an economy is characterized bythe distribution of firms on the branches of industry. We will show that it is possible to build a dynamicbased on the decisions of the managers or owners of the firms.Their investment decisions will cause the distribution of the firms in the branches of production to be modified,which will result in price changes. In a neighborhood of a singularity, these decisions,even when they are small, could lead to abrupt and unexpected changes in the behavior of the economy.It is for this reason that we say that singular economies are the prelude to economic crises. In opposite,in a neighborhood of a regular economy, small changes in the decisions of the managers do not implybig changes in the posterior behavior of the economy.THIS DATASET IS ARCHIVED AT DANS/EASY, BUT NOT ACCESSIBLE HERE. TO VIEW A LIST OF FILES AND ACCESS THE FILES IN THIS DATASET CLICK ON THE DOI-LINK ABOV
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