8,547 research outputs found

    The nature of the observed free-electron-like state in a PTCDA monolayer on Ag(111)

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    A free-electron like band has recently been observed in a monolayer of PTCDA (3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride) molecules on Ag(111) by two-photon photoemission [Schwalb et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 146801 (2008)] and scanning tunneling spectroscopy [Temirov et al., Nature 444, 350 (2006)]. Using density functional theory calculations, we find that the observed free-electron like band originates from the Shockley surface state band being dramatically shifted up in energy by the interaction with the adsorbed molecules while it acquires also a substantial admixture with a molecular band

    Efficiently Learning from Revealed Preference

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    In this paper, we consider the revealed preferences problem from a learning perspective. Every day, a price vector and a budget is drawn from an unknown distribution, and a rational agent buys his most preferred bundle according to some unknown utility function, subject to the given prices and budget constraint. We wish not only to find a utility function which rationalizes a finite set of observations, but to produce a hypothesis valuation function which accurately predicts the behavior of the agent in the future. We give efficient algorithms with polynomial sample-complexity for agents with linear valuation functions, as well as for agents with linearly separable, concave valuation functions with bounded second derivative.Comment: Extended abstract appears in WINE 201

    Isolation of tributyltin-degrading bacteria citrobacter braakii and enterobacter cloacae from butyltin-polluted sediment

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    Tributyltin compound (TBT) released into the aquatic environment is generally degraded by bacteria in water and sediment. The isolation of TBT-degrading bacteria from TBT polluted sediment leads to the indication of specific potential TBT degraders. Two new strains of bacteria designated as B2 and B3 were successfully isolated using glycerol medium containing tributyltin chloride (TBTC) at 130 ÎŒM from contaminated sediment collected from Bowling Basin in Glasgow. The observed degradation after 14 days of the microcosm from the sediment and the isolated bacteria were investigated at an initial concentration of 1 ÎŒM TBTC. It was found that TBT was degraded by the bacterial strains B2 and B3 at 8.3 and 16.9 %, respectively. The results indicate that B2 and B3 are effective as TBT degraders. EC50 of B2 and B3 in water were 88.73 and 112.53 ÎŒM TBTC, which were significantly higher than the concentration of TBT measured at the basin, suggesting a low effect of TBT on the growth and activity of bacteria. After identification using API 20E and 16S sequencing, the bacterial isolate strain B2 is Citrobacter braakii and B3 is Enterobacter cloacae. Therefore, this study has discovered two species of high resistance TBT degrader which have never been previously studied or isolated based upon TBT degradation ability

    The nature of the observed free-electron-like state in a PTCDA monolayer on Ag(111)

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    A free-electron-like band has recently been observed in a monolayer of 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) molecules on Ag(111) by two-photon photoemission (Schwalb et al 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 101 146801) and scanning tunneling spectroscopy (Temirov et al 2006 Nature 444 350). Using density functional theory calculations, we find that the observed free-electron-like band originates from the Shockley surface state band being dramatically shifted up in energy by the interaction with the adsorbed molecules, while it also acquires a substantial admixture with a molecular band

    Ablation debris control by means of closed thick film filtered water immersion

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    The performance of laser ablation generated debris control by means of open immersion techniques have been shown to be limited by flow surface ripple effects on the beam and the action of ablation plume pressure loss by splashing of the immersion fluid. To eradicate these issues a closed technique has been developed which ensured a controlled geometry for both the optical interfaces of the flowing liquid film. This had the action of preventing splashing, ensuring repeatable machining conditions and allowed for control of liquid flow velocity. To investigate the performance benefits of this closed immersion technique bisphenol A polycarbonate samples have been machined using filtered water at a number of flow velocities. The results demonstrate the efficacy of the closed immersion technique: a 93% decrease in debris is produced when machining under closed filtered water immersion; the average debris particle size becomes larger, with an equal proportion of small and medium sized debris being produced when laser machining under closed flowing filtered water immersion; large debris is shown to be displaced further by a given flow velocity than smaller debris, showing that the action of flow turbulence in the duct has more impact on smaller debris. Low flow velocities were found to be less effective at controlling the positional trend of deposition of laser ablation generated debris than high flow velocities; but, use of excessive flow velocities resulted in turbulence motivated deposition. This work is of interest to the laser micromachining community and may aide in the manufacture of 2.5D laser etched patterns covering large area wafers and could be applied to a range of wavelengths and laser types

    A note on the field of decision analysis

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    This note provides a short overview of some history, context and concepts in the field of decision analysis. In particular, we describe the connection between normative, prescriptive and descriptive decision theory, and the connection between several different approaches to value and utility

    Boundary Terms, Variational Principles and Higher Derivative Modified Gravity

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    We discuss the criteria that must be satisfied by a well-posed variational principle. We clarify the role of Gibbons-Hawking-York type boundary terms in the actions of higher derivative models of gravity, such as F(R) gravity, and argue that the correct boundary terms are the naive ones obtained though the correspondence with scalar-tensor theory, despite the fact that variations of normal derivatives of the metric must be fixed on the boundary. We show in the case of F(R) gravity that these boundary terms reproduce the correct ADM energy in the hamiltonian formalism, and the correct entropy for black holes in the semi-classical approximation.Comment: 54 pages, 2 figures. Several typos corrected, references added. Version appearing in PR
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