93 research outputs found

    Re-enactment

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    EUVE Observations: Atmospheres of Cool Binaries

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    A list of publications and presentations supported by the NASA Grant, and copies of two of the papers are appended

    Ninth Cambridge Workshop on Cool Stars, Stellar Systems and the Sun

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    This Grant was used to publish the Proceedings from the Ninth Cambridge Workshop on Cool Stars, Stellar Systems, and the Sun held in Florence, Italy from 3 to 6 October 1995. The Proceedings were published by the Astronomical Society of the Pacific in their Conference Series, Volume 109 in 1996. This volume was edited by Roberto Pallavicini and Andrea K. Dupree. A copy of the title page and the Table of Contents of the volume is appended

    Coronal Structures in Cool Stars

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    We have extended our study of the structure of coronas in cool stars to very young stars still accreting from their surrounding disks. In addition we are pursing the connection between coronal X-rays and a powerful diagnostic line in the infrared, the He I 10830Angstrom transition of helium. Highlights of these are summarized below including publications during this reporting period and presentations. Spectroscopy of the infrared He I (lambda10830) line with KECK/NIRSPEC and IRTF/CSHELL and of the ultraviolet C III (lambda977) and O VI (lambda1032) emission with FUSE reveals that the classical T Tauri star TW Hydrae exhibits P Cygni profiles, line asymmetries, and absorption indicative of a continuous, fast (approximately 400 kilometers per second), hot (approximately 300,000 K) accelerating outflow with a mass loss rate approximately 10(exp -11)-10(exp -12) solar mass yr(sup -1) or larger. Spectra of T Tauri N appear consistent with such a wind. The source of the emission and outflow seems restricted to the stars themselves. Although the mass accretion rate is an order of magnitude less for TW Hya than for T Tau, the outflow reaches higher velocities at chromospheric temperatures in TW Hya. Winds from young stellar objects may be substantially hotter and faster than previously thought. The ultraviolet emission lines, when corrected for absorption are broad. Emission associated with the accretion flow and shock is likely to show turbulent broadening. We note that the UV line widths are significantly larger than the X-ray line widths. If the X-rays from TW Hya are generated at the accretion shock, the UV lines may not be directly associated with the shock. On the other hand, studies of X-ray emission in young star clusters, suggest that the strength of the X-ray emission is correlated with stellar rotation, thus casting doubt on an accretion origin for the X-rays. We are beginning to access the infrared spectral region where the He I 108308Angstroms transition occurs. This line is particularly useful as a diagnostic of coronal radiation since it is formed by recombination following photoionization of neutral helium by coronal X-rays. Because the lower level of the transition is metastable, infrared radiation from the stellar photosphere is absorbed which provides a diagnostic of atmospheric dynamics. This transition is useful both in young stars in the T Tauri phase and in active cool star binaries. We will investigate the influence of coronal x-rays on the strength of this transition

    An evolving trio of hybrid stars: C111

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    Hybrid stars are a class of cool, luminous single stars originally identified based on the appearance of their ultraviolet IUE spectra. C IV emission is present (signifying temperatures of at least lo5 K), and asymmetric emission cores of Mg I1 are found, accompanied by absorption features at low and high velocities, indicating a massive stellar wind and circumstellar material. Many members of this class have been identified and X-rays have been detected from most hybrids. They represent the critical evolutionary state between coronal-like objects and the Alpha Ori-like objects and assume a pivotal role in the definition of coronal evolution, atmospheric heating processes, and mechanisms to drive winds of cool stars

    A New Look at T Tauri Star Forbidden Lines: MHD Driven Winds from the Inner Disk

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    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and photoevaporative winds are thought to play an important role in the evolution and dispersal of planet-forming disks. We report the first high-resolution (Δv\Delta v\sim6\kms) analysis of [S II] λ\lambda4068, [O I] λ\lambda5577, and [O I] λ\lambda6300 lines from a sample of 48 T Tauri stars. Following Simon et al. (2016), we decompose them into three kinematic components: a high-velocity component (HVC) associated with jets, and a low-velocity narrow (LVC-NC) and broad (LVC-BC) components. We confirm previous findings that many LVCs are blueshifted by more than 1.5 kms1^{-1} thus most likely trace a slow disk wind. We further show that the profiles of individual components are similar in the three lines. We find that most LVC-BC and NC line ratios are explained by thermally excited gas with temperatures between 5,000-10,000 K and electron densities 107108\sim10^{7}-10^{8} cm3^{-3}. The HVC ratios are better reproduced by shock models with a pre-shock H number density of 106107\sim10^{6}-10^{7} cm3^{-3}. Using these physical properties, we estimate M˙wind/M˙acc\dot{M}_{\rm wind}/\dot{M}_{\rm acc} for the LVC and M˙jet/M˙acc\dot{M}_{\rm jet}/\dot{M}_{\rm acc} for the HVC. In agreement with previous work, the mass carried out in jets is modest compared to the accretion rate. With the likely assumption that the NC wind height is larger than the BC, the LVC-BC M˙wind/M˙acc\dot{M}_{\rm wind}/\dot{M}_{\rm acc} is found to be higher than the LVC-NC. These results suggest that most of the mass loss occurs close to the central star, within a few au, through an MHD driven wind. Depending on the wind height, MHD winds might play a major role in the evolution of the disk mass.Comment: 45 pages, 23 figures, and 7 tables, accepted by Ap
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