72 research outputs found

    Development of a Strategic Approach for a Single EU Beef Market. Extensification. An Analysis of National and Competitive Issues

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    Working paperThe economic merits of the two Options for extensification under Agenda 2000 were evaluated in relation to their ability to generate revenue and their impact on the competitiveness of Irish cattle farming

    Development of a Strategic Approach for a Single EU Beef Market

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    End of Project ReportThe MacSharry reforms of the CAP in 1992 initiated a major EU policy shift from product price support to a mix of lower prices and increased direct payments (DPs) as the primary method of supporting the income of cattle farmers. The reduction in the support price for beef and the introduction of new and increased DPs were phased in over a three year period up to 1995. In working paper No. 4 it was shown that cattle farmers in Ireland obtain the lowest beef prices in the EU but they also obtain the highest DPs per kilo of beef produced. The DPs are now a major source of revenue for cattle farmers in Ireland. Under the current system of administering DPs for beef, the value of DPs accruing to the individual cattle farmer is dependent on the possession of certain types of animals that are farmed within defined stocking densities. This paper evaluates how the changes have impacted on the margins for the cattle enterprise on the farms in the Teagasc, National Farm Survey (NFS) over the five year period 1993 to 1997. In particular the evaluation focused on: ‚ÄĘ the trends in the size of gross and net margins for a range of cattle systems ‚ÄĘ the trends in market based margins ‚ÄĘ the contribution of DPs to gross and net margins ‚ÄĘ the distribution of DPs among different types and size of cattl

    Chemical and biological control of mushroom pests and diseases.

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    End of Project ReportThis study set out to determine the occurrence of diseases and pests in Irish mushroom units and their method of control using chemical, biological and other means of control. It also examined the role of a combination of these methods to enable control with minimal pesticide input. It was found that pesticides alone will never give effective disease and pest control and that they should only be considered an adjunct to the implementation of other methods. They include: (1) Exclusion (2) Containment of spread (3) Elimination. A major factor in good disease and pest control was found to be the implementation of a good programme of hygiene which must be followed from the time of filling a tunnel to the time of emptying after cropping. Biological systems offer good potential for control but at present are not as effective as the best chemical control methods.European Union Structural Funds (EAGGF

    Functional imaging of the developing brain with wearable high-density diffuse optical tomography: a new benchmark for infant neuroimaging outside the scanner environment

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    Studies of cortical function in the awake infant are extremely challenging to undertake with traditional neuroimaging approaches. Partly in response to this challenge, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has become increasingly common in developmental neuroscience, but has significant limitations including resolution, spatial specificity and ergonomics. In adults, high-density arrays of near-infrared sources and detectors have recently been shown to yield dramatic improvements in spatial resolution and specificity when compared to typical fNIRS approaches. However, most existing fNIRS devices only permit the acquisition of ‚ąľ20-100 sparsely distributed fNIRS channels, and increasing the number of optodes presents significant mechanical challenges, particularly for infant applications. A new generation of wearable, modular, high-density diffuse optical tomography (HD-DOT) technologies has recently emerged that overcomes many of the limitations of traditional, fibre-based and low-density fNIRS measurements. Driven by the development of this new technology, we have undertaken the first study of the infant brain using wearable HD-DOT. Using a well-established social stimulus paradigm, and combining this new imaging technology with advances in cap design and spatial registration, we show that it is now possible to obtain high-quality, functional images of the infant brain with minimal constraints on either the environment or on the infant participants. Our results are consistent with prior low-density fNIRS measures based on similar paradigms, but demonstrate superior spatial localization, improved depth specificity, higher SNR and a dramatic improvement in the consistency of the responses across participants. Our data retention rates also demonstrate that this new generation of wearable technology is well tolerated by the infant population

    Mortality and pulmonary complications in patients undergoing surgery with perioperative SARS-CoV-2 infection: an international cohort study

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    Background: The impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on postoperative recovery needs to be understood to inform clinical decision making during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. This study reports 30-day mortality and pulmonary complication rates in patients with perioperative SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: This international, multicentre, cohort study at 235 hospitals in 24 countries included all patients undergoing surgery who had SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed within 7 days before or 30 days after surgery. The primary outcome measure was 30-day postoperative mortality and was assessed in all enrolled patients. The main secondary outcome measure was pulmonary complications, defined as pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, or unexpected postoperative ventilation. Findings: This analysis includes 1128 patients who had surgery between Jan 1 and March 31, 2020, of whom 835 (74¬∑0%) had emergency surgery and 280 (24¬∑8%) had elective surgery. SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed preoperatively in 294 (26¬∑1%) patients. 30-day mortality was 23¬∑8% (268 of 1128). Pulmonary complications occurred in 577 (51¬∑2%) of 1128 patients; 30-day mortality in these patients was 38¬∑0% (219 of 577), accounting for 81¬∑7% (219 of 268) of all deaths. In adjusted analyses, 30-day mortality was associated with male sex (odds ratio 1¬∑75 [95% CI 1¬∑28‚Äď2¬∑40], p\textless0¬∑0001), age 70 years or older versus younger than 70 years (2¬∑30 [1¬∑65‚Äď3¬∑22], p\textless0¬∑0001), American Society of Anesthesiologists grades 3‚Äď5 versus grades 1‚Äď2 (2¬∑35 [1¬∑57‚Äď3¬∑53], p\textless0¬∑0001), malignant versus benign or obstetric diagnosis (1¬∑55 [1¬∑01‚Äď2¬∑39], p=0¬∑046), emergency versus elective surgery (1¬∑67 [1¬∑06‚Äď2¬∑63], p=0¬∑026), and major versus minor surgery (1¬∑52 [1¬∑01‚Äď2¬∑31], p=0¬∑047). Interpretation: Postoperative pulmonary complications occur in half of patients with perioperative SARS-CoV-2 infection and are associated with high mortality. Thresholds for surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic should be higher than during normal practice, particularly in men aged 70 years and older. Consideration should be given for postponing non-urgent procedures and promoting non-operative treatment to delay or avoid the need for surgery. Funding: National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland, Bowel and Cancer Research, Bowel Disease Research Foundation, Association of Upper Gastrointestinal Surgeons, British Association of Surgical Oncology, British Gynaecological Cancer Society, European Society of Coloproctology, NIHR Academy, Sarcoma UK, Vascular Society for Great Britain and Ireland, and Yorkshire Cancer Research

    PANC Study (Pancreatitis: A National Cohort Study): national cohort study examining the first 30 days from presentation of acute pancreatitis in the UK

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    Abstract Background Acute pancreatitis is a common, yet complex, emergency surgical presentation. Multiple guidelines exist and management can vary significantly. The aim of this first UK, multicentre, prospective cohort study was to assess the variation in management of acute pancreatitis to guide resource planning and optimize treatment. Methods All patients aged greater than or equal to 18 years presenting with acute pancreatitis, as per the Atlanta criteria, from March to April 2021 were eligible for inclusion and followed up for 30 days. Anonymized data were uploaded to a secure electronic database in line with local governance approvals. Results A total of 113 hospitals contributed data on 2580 patients, with an equal sex distribution and a mean age of 57 years. The aetiology was gallstones in 50.6 per cent, with idiopathic the next most common (22.4 per cent). In addition to the 7.6 per cent with a diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis, 20.1 per cent of patients had a previous episode of acute pancreatitis. One in 20 patients were classed as having severe pancreatitis, as per the Atlanta criteria. The overall mortality rate was 2.3 per cent at 30 days, but rose to one in three in the severe group. Predictors of death included male sex, increased age, and frailty; previous acute pancreatitis and gallstones as aetiologies were protective. Smoking status and body mass index did not affect death. Conclusion Most patients presenting with acute pancreatitis have a mild, self-limiting disease. Rates of patients with idiopathic pancreatitis are high. Recurrent attacks of pancreatitis are common, but are likely to have reduced risk of death on subsequent admissions. </jats:sec

    Assessing the Influence of Political Skill on Leaders’ Choice of Humor

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    As humor has been found to have a positive influence on employees’ well-being, work performance, and job satisfaction, it is essential for leaders to utilize humor in the workplace. The ability to use appropriate humor depends on how much leaders understand organizational cultures and others. Two hypotheses are investigated: (1) Politically skilled leaders use more affiliative/positive humor than others and promote a positive humor climate and (2) Social Astuteness (a dimension of Politically Skill) has the highest correlation to leaders’ positive humor styles. Politically skilled leaders were found to also use positive humor styles such as affiliative and self-enhancing humor and avoid aggressive humor. Leaders’ perceived level of being sincere and influencing others had stronger correlations to their perceived positive humor than their ability to assess situations
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