205 research outputs found

    Trip Characteristics of Casino and Racino Visitors In A Midwestern State

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    Gaming is a revenue driver for many areas and can be an economic boost for businesses and tourism entities around gaming venues. This study seeks to provide a comprehensive overview of the characteristics profile and expenditures of casino and racino visitors in a Midwestern state as a valuable resource that could be used by those in tourism planning to better determine who is coming into their state for gaming purposes and how they might better attract and accommodate them. Suggestions will be made based on the findings to aid in determining effective marketing methods to attract visitors, as well as facility or program enhancements to increase visitor expenditures

    Effect of initiating drug treatment on the risk of drug-related poisoning death and acquisitive crime among offending heroin users.

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    BACKGROUND: A recent Cochrane review of randomised trials identified a lack of evidence for interventions provided to drug-using offenders. We use routine data to address whether contact with treatment services reduces heroin users' likelihood of a future acquisitive offence or drug-related poisoning (DRP) death. METHODS: Heroin-users were identified from probation assessments and linked to drug-treatment, mortality and offending records. The study cohort was selected to ensure that the subject was not: in prison, in treatment or had recently left treatment. Subjects were classed as initiators if they attended a triage appointment within two weeks of their assessment; non-initiators otherwise. Initiator and non-initiators were compared over a maximum of one year, with respect to their risk of recorded acquisitive offence or DRP-death. Balance was sought using propensity score matching and missing data were accounted for using multiple imputation. RESULTS: Nine percent of assessments identified for analysis were classed as initiators. Accounting for observed confounding and missing data, there was a reduction in DRPs associated with initiator assessments, however there was uncertainty around this estimate such that a null-effect could not be ruled out (HR: 0.42, 95% CI 0.17-1.04). There was no evidence of a decrease in the recidivism risk, in fact the analysis showed a small increase (HR: 1.10, 95% CI 1.02-1.18). CONCLUSION: For heroin-using offenders, initial contact with treatment services does not appear to reduce the likelihood of a future acquisitive offence

    Non-use of Contraception by Canadian Youth Aged 15 to 24: Findings From the 2009-2010 Canadian Community Health Survey.

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    OBJECTIVES: Non-use of contraception is an important contributor to unintended pregnancy. This study assessed non-use of contraception and its determinants among Canadian youth aged 15 to 24. METHODS: Data from the 2009-2010 Canadian Community Health Survey respondents aged 15 to 24 were used to identify non-users of contraception among heterosexual youth who had had intercourse within the previous 12 months, were not pregnant or sterilized, and felt it was important to avoid pregnancy. Sociodemographic, behavioural, and geographic factors were compared for non-users and users of contraception. RESULTS: Among youth at risk for unintended pregnancy, 15.5% were non-users of contraception. There were no differences between sexes. Across regions of Canada, Quebéc had the highest proportion of at-risk youth, but at-risk Quebéc youth were the least likely to be non-users (7.4%; CI 5.7%-9.0%) compared with at-risk youth in the Territories (28.3%; CI 21.6%-35.0%). In the multivariable analysis, aside from residence outside of Quebéc, younger age, lower income, Aboriginal identification (adjusted OR [aOR] 1.67; CI 1.18-2.37), and smoking (aOR 1.55; CI 1.24-1.92) were associated with non-use. Canadian-born youth (aOR 0.61; CI 0.39-0.96) and those enrolled in school (aOR 0.63; CI 0.50-0.81) were less likely to be non-users. CONCLUSION: The 15.5% of Canadian youth at risk for unintended pregnancy who were non-users of contraception represent an estimated 300 000 Canadian youth. Policies and programs to promote and support access to sexual health services and effective contraception with specific attention to supporting the needs of younger teens, Aboriginal youth, newcomers, low-income youth, and youth who are not in school are needed

    Slow implementation of mifepristone medical termination of pregnancy in Quebec, Canada: a qualitative investigation.

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    Objectives: Mifepristone for first-trimester medical termination of pregnancy (MTOP) became available in Quebec in 2018, one year after the rest of Canada. Using the theory of the Diffusion of Innovation (DOI) and the transtheoretical model of change (TTM), we investigated factors influencing the implementation of mifepristone MTOP in Quebec.Material and Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 37 Quebec physicians in early 2018. Deductive thematic analysis guided by the theory of DOI explored facilitators and barriers to physicians' adoption of mifepristone MTOP. We then classified participants into five stages of mifepristone adoption based on the TTM. Follow-up data collection one year later assessed further adoption.Results: At baseline, three physicians provided mifepristone MTOP (Maintenance) and two were about to start (Action). Thirteen physicians at Preparation and Advanced Contemplation stages intended to start while, within the Slow Contemplation, two intended to start and ten were unsure. Seven had no intention to provide mifepristone MTOP (Pre-Contemplation). Major reported barriers were: complexity of local health care organisations, medical policy restrictions, lack of support, and general uncertainty. One year later, ten physicians provided mifepristone MTOP (including three at baseline) and nine still intended to, while seventeen did not intend to start provision. Seven of sixteen participants (44%) who worked in TOP clinics at baseline were still not providing MTOP with mifepristone one year later.Conclusion: Despite ideological support, mifepristone MTOP uptake in Quebec is slow and laborious, mainly due to restrictive medical policies, vested interests in surgical provision and administrative inertia

    Paths to wider adoption of e-infrastructure services

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    This paper presents work conducted as part of the e-Uptake project, which aims to widen the uptake of e-Infrastructure services for research. We will discuss our fieldwork conducted so far, give examples of the barriers and enablers identified and discuss how using the accumulated knowledge can lead to paving the way for wider adoption of e Infrastructure Services

    Household income and contraceptive methods among female youth: a cross-sectional study using the Canadian Community Health Survey (2009-2010 and 2013-2014).

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    BACKGROUND: Low socioeconomic status is one of many barriers that may limit access to family planning services. We aimed to examine the relation between household income and contraceptive methods among female youth in Canada. METHODS: Our study population included sexually active females aged 15-24 who were trying to avoid pregnancy. We used cross-sectional data from the 2009-2010 and 2013-2014 cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey to compare household income and other sociodemographic covariates for those using oral contraceptives, injectable contraceptives, condoms or a dual method (condoms plus oral or injectable contraceptives). RESULTS: Of female youth at risk for unintended pregnancy, 59.2% reported using oral contraceptives, 29.0% used dual methods, 16.8% used condoms only, 2.5% used injectable contraceptives and 13.6% did not use contraception. In multiple regression models, lower annual household income (< $80 000) was associated with decreased use of oral contraceptives (relative risk [RR] 0.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.80-0.91) and dual methods (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.71-0.91), increased use of condoms (RR 1.36, 95% CI 1.11-1.67) and injectable contraceptives (RR 1.69, 95% CI 0.98-2.92), and a greater risk of contraceptive nonuse (RR 1.19, 95% CI 0.94-1.50). INTERPRETATION: We found that lower household income was associated with decreased use of oral contraceptives and increased reliance on injectable contraceptives and condoms only. Young, low-income females may face barriers to accessing the full range of contraceptive methods available in Canada. Easier access to affordable contraception may decrease the number of female youth at risk for unintended pregnancy due to financial barriers

    Development and pilot testing of the 2019 Canadian Abortion Provider Survey

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    BACKGROUND: Substantial changes in abortion care regulations, available medications and national clinical practice guidelines have occurred since a 2012 national Canadian Abortion Provider Survey (CAPS). We developed and piloted the CAPS 2019 survey instrument to explore changes of the abortion provider workforce, their clinical care as well as experiences with stigma and harassment. METHODS: We undertook development and piloting in three phases: (1) development of the preliminary survey sections and questions based on the 2012 survey instrument, (2) content validation and feasibility of including certain content aspects via a modified Delphi Method with panels of clinical and research experts, and (3) pilot testing of the draft survey for face validity and clarity of language; assessing usability of the web-based Research Electronic Data Capture platform including the feasibility of complex skip pattern functionality. We performed content analysis of phase 2 results and used a general inductive approach to identify necessary survey modifications. RESULTS: In phase 1, we generated a survey draft that reflected the changes in Canadian abortion care regulations and guidelines and included questions for clinicians and administrators providing first and second trimester surgical and medical abortion. In phase 2, we held 6 expert panel meetings of 5-8 participants each representing clinicians, administrators and researchers to provide feedback on the initial survey draft. Due to the complexity of certain identified aspects, such as interdisciplinary collaboration and interprovincial care delivery differences, we revised the survey sections through an iterative process of meetings and revisions until we reached consensus on constructs and questions to include versus exclude for not being feasible. In phase 3, we made minor revisions based on pilot testing of the bilingual, web-based survey among additional experts chosen to be widely representative of the study population. Demonstrating its feasibility, we included complex branching and skip pattern logic so each respondent only viewed applicable questions based on their prior responses. CONCLUSIONS: We developed and piloted the CAPS 2019 survey instrument suitable to explore characteristics of a complex multidisciplinary workforce, their care and experience with stigma on a national level, and that can be adapted to other countries

    A more accurate approach to define abortion cohorts using linked administrative data: an application to Ontario, Canada

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    BACKGROUND: The shifting landscape of abortion care from a hospital-only to a distributed service including primary care has implications for how to identify abortion cohorts for research and surveillance. The objectives of this study were to 1) create an improved approach to define abortion cohorts using linked administrative data sets and 2) evaluate the performance of this approach for abortion surveillance compared with standard approach. METHODS: We applied four principles to identify induced abortion cohorts when some services are delivered beyond hospital settings; 1) exclude early pregnancy losses and postpartum procedures; 2) use multiple data sources; 3) define episodes of care; 4) apply a hierarchical algorithm to determine abortion date to a population-based cohort of all abortion events in Ontario (Canada) from January 1, 2018-March 15, 2020. We calculated risk differences (RD, with 95% confidence intervals) comparing the proportion of medication vs. surgical, first vs. second trimester, and complication incidence applying these principles vs. standard approaches. RESULTS: Hospital-only data (versus multiple data sources) underestimated the frequency of medication abortion (16.1% vs. 31.4%; RD -15.3% [-14.3, -16.3]) and first-trimester abortion (82.1% vs. 94.5%; RD -12.8 [-11.4, 13.4]) and overestimated incidence of abortion complication (2.9% vs. 0.69%; RD 2.2% [1.8, 2.7]). An unlinked (versus linked) approach underestimated the frequency of abortion complications (0.19% vs 0.69%, -RD 0.50% [-0.44 - -0.56]). Including (versus excluding) abortions following early pregnancy loss or delivery events increased the estimated incidence of abortion complications (1.29% vs. 0.69%, RD 0.60% [0.51-0.69]. CONCLUSION: New methods are required to accurately identify abortion cohorts for surveillance or research. When legal or regulatory approaches to medication abortion evolve to enable abortion in primary care or office-based settings, hospital-based surveillance systems will become incomplete and biased; to continue valid and complete abortion surveillance, methods must be adjusted to ensure complete capture of procedures across all settings

    Telemedicine for First-Trimester Medical Abortion in Canada: Results of a 2019 Survey.

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    Telemedicine has the potential to improve abortion access disparities in Canada. We aimed to explore the provision of telemedicine for first-trimester medical abortion and related barriers in 2019. Methods: We conducted a national, cross-sectional, anonymized, web-based survey of clinicians who provided abortion care in 2019 in Canada. We distributed our survey through professional health organizations to maximize identification of possible eligible respondents and used a modified Dillman technique to foster responses. Questions elicited provider demographics, clinical characteristics, including telemedicine first-trimester medical abortion and perceived related barriers. Descriptive statistics were analyzed using R software. Results: Among 465 respondents, 388 reported providing first-trimester medical abortion across Canada; 44.0% reported experience using telemedicine for some components of care: 49.3% of primary care clinicians and 28.7% of specialists. Telemedicine was used for initial consultation (86.0%), prescription (82.2%), or follow-up (92.2%). The median percentage of telemedicine providers' patients who underwent a dating ultrasound was 90.0. The majority usually followed up with patients through quantitative human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) (84.2%). Seventy-eight percent perceived barriers to telemedicine; the most common being inability to confirm gestational age with ultrasound (43.0%), and lack of provincial telemedicine abortion fee code to pay practitioners (30.2%), timely access to serum hCG testing (24.6%), and nearby emergency services (23.3%). Discussion: In 2019, fewer than half of respondents reported providing some aspects of first-trimester medical abortion through telemedicine and the majority perceived barriers. Our results can inform knowledge translation activities to reduce barriers and increase telemedicine abortion care in Canada

    A Virtual Community of Practice to Support Physician Uptake of a Novel Abortion Practice: Mixed Methods Case Study.

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    BACKGROUND: Virtual communities of practice (VCoPs) have been used to support innovation and quality in clinical care. The drug mifepristone was introduced in Canada in 2017 for medical abortion. We created a VCoP to support implementation of mifepristone abortion practice across Canada. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the development and use of the Canadian Abortion Providers Support-Communauté de pratique canadienne sur l'avortement (CAPS-CPCA) VCoP and explore physicians' experience with CAPS-CPCA and their views on its value in supporting implementation. METHODS: This was a mixed methods intrinsic case study of Canadian health care providers' use and physicians' perceptions of the CAPS-CPCA VCoP during the first 2 years of a novel practice. We sampled both physicians who joined the CAPS-CPCA VCoP and those who were interested in providing the novel practice but did not join the VCoP. We designed the VCoP features to address known and discovered barriers to implementation of medication abortion in primary care. Our secure web-based platform allowed asynchronous access to information, practice resources, clinical support, discussion forums, and email notices. We collected data from the platform and through surveys of physician members as well as interviews with physician members and nonmembers. We analyzed descriptive statistics for website metrics, physicians' characteristics and practices, and their use of the VCoP. We used qualitative methods to explore the physicians' experiences and perceptions of the VCoP. RESULTS: From January 1, 2017, to June 30, 2019, a total of 430 physicians representing all provinces and territories in Canada joined the VCoP and 222 (51.6%) completed a baseline survey. Of these 222 respondents, 156 (70.3%) were family physicians, 170 (80.2%) were women, and 78 (35.1%) had no prior abortion experience. In a survey conducted 12 months after baseline, 77.9% (120/154) of the respondents stated that they had provided mifepristone abortion and 33.9% (43/127) said the VCoP had been important or very important. Logging in to the site was burdensome for some, but members valued downloadable resources such as patient information sheets, consent forms, and clinical checklists. They found email announcements helpful for keeping up to date with changing regulations. Few asked clinical questions to the VCoP experts, but physicians felt that this feature was important for isolated or rural providers. Information collected through member polls about health system barriers to implementation was used in the project's knowledge translation activities with policy makers to mitigate these barriers. CONCLUSIONS: A VCoP developed to address known and discovered barriers to uptake of a novel medication abortion method engaged physicians from across Canada and supported some, including those with no prior abortion experience, to implement this practice. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): RR2-10.1136/bmjopen-2018-028443
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