66 research outputs found

    Review of single vector boson production in pp collisions at s=7\sqrt{s} = 7 TeV

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    This review summarises the main results on the production of single vector bosons in the Standard Model, both inclusively and in association with light and heavy flavour jets, at the Large Hadron Collider in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. The general purpose detectors at this collider, ATLAS and CMS, each recorded an integrated luminosity of 40pb1\approx 40\,{\rm pb^{-1}} and 5fb15\,{\rm fb^{-1}} in the years 2010 and 2011, respectively. The corresponding data offer the unique possibility to precisely study the properties of the production of heavy vector bosons in a new energy regime. The accurate understanding of the Standard Model is not only crucial for searches of unknown particles and phenomena but also to test predictions of perturbative Quantum-Chromo-Dynamics calculations and for precision measurements of observables in the electroweak sector. Results from a variety of measurements in which single W or Z bosons are identified are reviewed. Special emphasis in this review is given to interpretations of the experimental results in the context of state-of-the-art predictions.Comment: 60 pages, 64 figures, For Eur. Phys. J.

    Event-by-event Comparison between Machine-Learning- and Transfer-Matrix-based Unfolding Methods

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    The unfolding of detector effects is a key aspect of comparing experimental data with theoretical predictions. In recent years, different Machine-Learning methods have been developed to provide novel features, e.g. high dimensionality or a probabilistic single-event unfolding based on generative neural networks. Traditionally, many analyses unfold detector effects using transfer-matrix--based algorithms, which are well established in low-dimensional unfolding. They yield an unfolded distribution of the total spectrum, together with its covariance matrix. This paper proposes a method to obtain probabilistic single-event unfolded distributions, together with their uncertainties and correlations, for the transfer-matrix--based unfolding. The algorithm is first validated on a toy model and then applied to pseudo-data for the ppZγγpp\rightarrow Z\gamma \gamma process. In both examples the performance is compared to the single-event unfolding of the Machine-Learning--based Iterative cINN unfolding (IcINN).Comment: 22 pages, 11 figure

    50 Years of quantum chromodynamics – Introduction and Review

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    Study of ordered hadron chains with the ATLAS detector

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    A search for resonances decaying into a Higgs boson and a new particle X in the XH→qqbb final state with the ATLAS detector

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    A search for heavy resonances decaying into a Higgs boson (HH) and a new particle (XX) is reported, utilizing 36.1 fb1^{-1} of proton-proton collision data at s=\sqrt{s} = 13 TeV collected during 2015 and 2016 with the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The particle XX is assumed to decay to a pair of light quarks, and the fully hadronic final state XHqqˉbbˉXH \rightarrow q\bar q'b\bar b is analysed. The search considers the regime of high XHXH resonance masses, where the XX and HH bosons are both highly Lorentz-boosted and are each reconstructed using a single jet with large radius parameter. A two-dimensional phase space of XHXH mass versus XX mass is scanned for evidence of a signal, over a range of XHXH resonance mass values between 1 TeV and 4 TeV, and for XX particles with masses from 50 GeV to 1000 GeV. All search results are consistent with the expectations for the background due to Standard Model processes, and 95% CL upper limits are set, as a function of XHXH and XX masses, on the production cross-section of the XHqqˉbbˉXH\rightarrow q\bar q'b\bar b resonance

    Enabling planetary science across light-years. Ariel Definition Study Report

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    Ariel, the Atmospheric Remote-sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large-survey, was adopted as the fourth medium-class mission in ESA's Cosmic Vision programme to be launched in 2029. During its 4-year mission, Ariel will study what exoplanets are made of, how they formed and how they evolve, by surveying a diverse sample of about 1000 extrasolar planets, simultaneously in visible and infrared wavelengths. It is the first mission dedicated to measuring the chemical composition and thermal structures of hundreds of transiting exoplanets, enabling planetary science far beyond the boundaries of the Solar System. The payload consists of an off-axis Cassegrain telescope (primary mirror 1100 mm x 730 mm ellipse) and two separate instruments (FGS and AIRS) covering simultaneously 0.5-7.8 micron spectral range. The satellite is best placed into an L2 orbit to maximise the thermal stability and the field of regard. The payload module is passively cooled via a series of V-Groove radiators; the detectors for the AIRS are the only items that require active cooling via an active Ne JT cooler. The Ariel payload is developed by a consortium of more than 50 institutes from 16 ESA countries, which include the UK, France, Italy, Belgium, Poland, Spain, Austria, Denmark, Ireland, Portugal, Czech Republic, Hungary, the Netherlands, Sweden, Norway, Estonia, and a NASA contribution

    Search for dark matter produced in association with bottom or top quarks in √s = 13 TeV pp collisions with the ATLAS detector