74 research outputs found

    Beliefs about Appropriate Antibacterial Therapy, California

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    To our knowledge, previous population-based surveys have not assessed misconceptions about antibacterial drug use over time. We documented a 26.3% decline in a key misconception in California women in 2003 compared to 2000; declines varied significantly by education level. Educational campaigns specifically designed to influence important subpopulations are needed

    Botulism from Drinking Pruno

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    Foodborne botulism occurred among inmates at 2 prisons in California in 2004 and 2005. In the first outbreak, 4 inmates were hospitalized, 2 of whom required intubation. In the second event, 1 inmate required intubation. Pruno, an alcoholic drink made illicitly in prisons, was the novel vehicle for these cases

    Barriers to Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Autopsies, California

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    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) surveillance relies on autopsy and neuropathologic evaluation. The 1990–2000 CJD autopsy rate in California was 21%. Most neurologists were comfortable diagnosing CJD (83%), but few pathologists felt comfortable diagnosing CJD (35%) or performing autopsy (29%). Addressing obstacles to autopsy is necessary to improve CJD surveillance

    Mycobacteria in Nail Salon Whirlpool Footbaths, California

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    In 2000, an outbreak of Mycobacterium fortuitum furunculosis affected customers using whirlpool footbaths at a nail salon. We swabbed 30 footbaths in 18 nail salons from 5 California counties and found mycobacteria in 29 (97%); M. fortuitum was the most common. Mycobacteria may pose an infectious risk for pedicure customers

    HIV infection as a risk factor for shigellosis.

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    We investigated cases of shigellosis in San Francisco and Alameda Counties identified during 1996 by active laboratory surveillance to assess the role of HIV infection as a risk factor for shigellosis. Dramatically elevated rates of shigellosis in HIV-infected persons implicate HIV infection as an important risk factor for shigellosis in San Francisco

    Participant Blinding and Gastrointestinal Illness in a Randomized, Controlled Trial of an In-Home Drinking Water Intervention

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    We conducted a randomized, triple-blinded home drinking water intervention trial to determine if a large study could be undertaken while successfully blinding participants. Households were randomized 50:50 to use externally identical active or sham treatment devices. We measured the effectiveness of blinding of participants by using a published blinding index in which values >0.5 indicate successful blinding. The principal health outcome measured was “highly credible gastrointestinal illness” (HCGI). Participants (n=236) from 77 households were successfully blinded to their treatment assignment. At the end of the study, the blinding index was 0.64 (95% confidence interval 0.51-0.78). There were 103 episodes of HCGI during 10,790 person-days at risk in the sham group and 82 episodes during 11,380 person-days at risk in the active treatment group. The incidence rate ratio of disease (adjusted for the clustered sampling) was 1.32 (95% CI 0.75, 2.33) and the attributable risk was 0.24 (95% CI -0.33, 0.57). These data confirm that participants can be successfully blinded to treatment group assignment during a randomized trial of an in-home drinking water intervention

    Multistate Shigellosis Outbreak and Commercially Prepared Food, United States

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    In 2000, shigellosis traced to a commercially prepared dip developed in 406 persons nationwide. An ill employee may have inadvertently contaminated processing equipment. This outbreak demonstrates the vulnerability of the food supply and how infectious organisms can rapidly disseminate through point-source contamination of a widely distributed food item
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