67 research outputs found

    RHCO: A Relation-aware Heterogeneous Graph Neural Network with Contrastive Learning for Large-scale Graphs

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    Heterogeneous graph neural networks (HGNNs) have been widely applied in heterogeneous information network tasks, while most HGNNs suffer from poor scalability or weak representation when they are applied to large-scale heterogeneous graphs. To address these problems, we propose a novel Relation-aware Heterogeneous Graph Neural Network with Contrastive Learning (RHCO) for large-scale heterogeneous graph representation learning. Unlike traditional heterogeneous graph neural networks, we adopt the contrastive learning mechanism to deal with the complex heterogeneity of large-scale heterogeneous graphs. We first learn relation-aware node embeddings under the network schema view. Then we propose a novel positive sample selection strategy to choose meaningful positive samples. After learning node embeddings under the positive sample graph view, we perform a cross-view contrastive learning to obtain the final node representations. Moreover, we adopt the label smoothing technique to boost the performance of RHCO. Extensive experiments on three large-scale academic heterogeneous graph datasets show that RHCO achieves best performance over the state-of-the-art models

    Investigation of hearing loss in elderly vertigo and dizziness patients in the past 10 years

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    BackgroundVertigo and hearing loss are both prevalent in the elderly. This study retrospectively analyzed hearing test results from elderly patients experiencing vertigo and dizziness at ENT outpatient over a 10-year period, in order to study the patterns of hearing loss in this patient population.MethodsNine thousand three hundred eighty four patients over 50 years old underwent retrospective collection and screening of outpatient diagnosis, pure tone audiometry, acoustic immittance measurement (tympanogram) and auditory brainstem response (ABR) test. The patient's audiograms are divided into 7 subtypes according to a set of fixed criteria. Meanwhile, K-Means clustering analysis method was used to classify the audiogram.ResultsThe Jerger classification of tympanogram in elderly patients with vertigo and dizziness showed the majority falling under type A. The leading audiogram shapes were flat (27.81% in right ear and 26.89% in left ear), high-frequency gently sloping (25.97% in right ear and 27.34% in left ear), and high-frequency steeply sloping (21.60% in right ear and 22.53% in left ear). Meniere's disease (MD; 30.87%), benign recurrent vertigo (BRV; 19.07%), and benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV; 15.66%) were the most common etiologies in elderly vestibular diseases. We observed statistically significant differences in hearing thresholds among these vestibular diseases (P < 0.001). K-Means clustering analysis suggested that the optimal number of clusters was three, with sample sizes for the three clusters being 2,747, 2,413, and 4,139, respectively. The ANOVA statistical results of each characteristic value showed P < 0.001.ConclusionThe elderly patients often have mild to moderate hearing loss as a concomitant symptom with vertigo. Female patients have better hearing thresholds than males. The dominant audiometric shapes in this patient population were flat, high-frequency gently sloping, and high-frequency steeply sloping according to a set of fixed criteria. This study highlights the need for tailored strategies in managing hearing loss in elderly patients with vertigo and dizziness

    Increased expression of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) in human pituitary tumors

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    PURPOSE: Subsets of pituitary tumors exhibit an aggressive clinical courses and recur despite surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Because modulation of the immune response through inhibition of T-cell checkpoints has led to durable clinical responses in multiple malignancies, we explored whether pituitary adenomas express immune-related biomarkers that could suggest suitability for immunotherapy. Specifically, programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) has emerged as a potential biomarker whose expression may portend more favorable responses to immune checkpoint blockade therapies. We thus investigated the expression of PD-L1 in pituitary adenomas. METHODS: PD-L1 RNA and protein expression were evaluated in 48 pituitary tumors, including functioning and non-functioning adenomas as well as atypical and recurrent tumors. Tumor infiltrating lymphocyte populations were also assessed by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Pituitary tumors express variable levels of PD-L1 transcript and protein. PD-L1 RNA and protein expression were significantly increased in functioning (growth hormone and prolactin-expressing) pituitary adenomas compared to non-functioning (null cell and silent gonadotroph) adenomas. Moreover, primary pituitary adenomas harbored higher levels of PD-L1 mRNA compared to recurrent tumors. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes were observed in all pituitary tumors and were positively correlated with increased PD-L1 expression, particularly in the functional subtypes. CONCLUSIONS: Human pituitary adenomas harbor PD-L1 across subtypes, with significantly higher expression in functioning adenomas compared to non-functioning adenomas. This expression is accompanied by the presence of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. These findings suggest the existence of an immune response to pituitary tumors and raise the possibility of considering checkpoint blockade immunotherapy in cases refractory to conventional management

    Delineating the molecular landscape of different histopathological growth patterns in colorectal cancer liver metastases

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    BackgroundHistopathological growth patterns (HGPs) have shown important prognostic values for patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases, but the potential molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown.MethodsWe performed an exploratory analysis by conducting the RNA sequencing of primary colorectal lesions, colorectal liver metastatic lesions and normal liver tissues.FindingsWe found that desmoplastic HGPs of the metastatic lesions were significantly enriched in EMT, angiogenesis, stroma, and immune signaling pathways, while replacement HGPs were enriched in metabolism, cell cycle, and DNA damage repair pathways. With the exception of immune-related genes, the differentially expressed genes of the two HGPs from colorectal liver metastases were mostly inherited from the primary tumor. Moreover, normal liver tissue in the desmoplastic HGP subgroup was markedly enriched in the fibrinous inflammation pathway.ConclusionsWe surmised that HGPs are observable morphological changes resulting from the regulation of molecular expressions, which is the combined effect of the heterogeneity and remodeling of primary tumors seeds and liver soils

    Transboundary Water Cooperation in the Post-Cold War Era: Spatial Patterns and the Role of Proximity

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    Transboundary water cooperation (TWC) is an important theme of international cooperation. We conducted macro-level research on TWC from the perspective of inter-country relations and constructed a theoretical framework in which multidimensional proximity influences the formation of global TWC. We explained how multidimensional proximity and the constituent elements comprehensively influence the cooperative willingness and ability of actors, which directly drive the generation of global TWC. During the empirical research phase, we constructed the TWC frequency and intensity networks based on historical TWC events data from 1992 to 2013. By using social network analysis and QAP regression analysis, the spatial structure and proximity effect of water cooperation linkages are examined. It can be found that: (1) the reconstruction of territorial space on the eve of the end of the Cold War led to the peak of water cooperation events in 1992. The overall scale of events in the Post-Cold War era was relatively high and fluctuated steadily. (2) Water cooperation linkages have distinct spatial heterogeneity and are concentrated in the Eurasian and the African continents. Water cooperation is sensitive to geographical distance, and high-intensity water cooperation linkages exist in only a few areas. (3) China, Egypt, Germany, the United States, and Russia have prominent positions in the network. The United States, Japan, and other extra-regional powers actively participated in TWC in the Eastern Hemisphere. (4) The regression results show that geographical, economic, organizational, and colonial proximity significantly affect the intensity of water cooperation among countries

    Optimization of Chemical Extraction Conditions of Dietary Fiber from <i>Cistanche deserticola</i> Residues and Its Structural Characteristics and Physicochemical and Functional Properties

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    Cistanche deserticola residues are by-products of the industrial production of Cistanche deserticola, which are currently often discarded, resulting in the waste of resources. In order to achieve the efficient utilization of Cistanche deserticola, dietary fiber from Cistanche deserticola residues was extracted chemically and the optimization of the extraction conditions was performed, using the response surface methodology to study the effects of the NaOH concentration, extraction temperature, extraction time, and solid–liquid ratio on the yield of water-soluble dietary fiber (SDF). The structural, physicochemical, and functional properties of the dietary fiber were also investigated. The results showed that the optimal conditions were as follows: NaOH concentration of 3.7%, extraction temperature of 71.7 °C, extraction time of 89.5 min, and solid–liquid ratio of 1:34. The average yield of SDF was 19.56%, which was close to the predicted value of 19.66%. The two dietary fiber types had typical polysaccharide absorption peaks and typical type I cellulose crystal structures, and the surface microstructures of the two dietary fiber types were different, with the surface of SDF being looser and more porous. Both dietary fiber types had good functional properties, with SDF having the strongest water-holding capacity and the strongest adsorption capacity for nitrite, cholesterol, sodium cholate, and glucose, while IDF had a better oil-holding capacity. These results suggest that Cistanche deserticola residues are a good source of dietary fiber and have promising applications in the functional food processing industry

    Technological innovation and structural change for economic development in China as an emerging market

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    As an emerging and transforming market, China has emphasized the key role of technological innovation and industrial structural change in economic growth. Using a nonlinear econometric model and provincial data from 2000 to 2014, this study investigates the direction of technological innovation and structural change for driving China's economic growth. From a national perspective, an inverted U-shaped relationship exists between technological progress and economic growth, revealing a need to shift the technological progress approach from imitation to innovation. Once the turning point is reached, structural upgrading stimulates China's economic growth. Regional heterogeneity is apparent in regional regression. Both energy-saving and environmental conservation technologies positively contribute to the eastern and central regions’ economies, while only environmental conservation technology accelerates the western region's economic development. On structural adjustment, central areas should utilize industrialization and achieve sustainable development, whereas the eastern and western regions do not benefit from industrial structural change. The study's findings can be applied to design policies and strategies that could promote sustainable economic growth through technological innovation and structural change
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