76 research outputs found

    Sexual Orientation Discrimination in the Labour Market

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    This research examines the possible discrimination faced by gay men compared to heterosexuals when applying for jobs in the Greek private sector. This issue was addressed through the observation of employer hiring decisions. Mailing pairs of curriculum vitae, distinguished only by the sexual orientation of the applicants, led to the observation that gay men faced a significantly lower chance of receiving an invitation for an interview. However, in cases where employers called applicants back, the wages offered did not differ significantly between gay and heterosexual applicants. Nevertheless, there is substantial evidence to suggest that discrimination based on sexual orientation does exist in the Greek labour market, and at alarmingly high levels.Field Experiment, Sexual Preference, Hiring Discrimination, Wage Discrimination

    Ethnic Differences in Housing Opportunities

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    This study uses a telephone field experiment to assess the degree of discrimination against female Albanians in Athenian rental housing markets. By examining a large sample represented by 122 urban areas we found that Albanians faced lower access to housing than the corresponding probability for Greeks. Moreover, Albanians faced lower access in newer apartments, above ground apartments, and repaired apartments. Meanwhile, Albanian home-seekers have to pay more than Greeks for these house characteristics. Of further importance is the finding that Albanians found to face higher access to housing in areas closer to the Athens centre, detecting the role of landlords in creating residential ethnic segregation. All findings are significant and suggest that Albanians both anticipate and encounter housing discrimination.Housing Discrimination, Two Stage Heckman�s Estimations

    Dual Life for Equal Labour? Sexual Orientation Discrimination in the Greek Labour Market

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    By means of a real-life experiment we investigated employment discrimination against low skilled gay men in the Greek private labour market three years after the national adoption of the European anti-discrimination employment legislation. As it first regards occupational access, curriculum vitaes differed only in sexual orientation were faxed to advertised job openings. The estimated probability of gays to receive an interview was by 0.261 lower than that of straights. In addition, exploiting the informal wage offers on the part of tentative employers, a wage discrimination factor was found to be 0.026 for gays. As it comes, a taste and/or statistical discrimination implied against gays. Adjusted for intra-class correlation the estimated differentials were found to be statistically significant (insignificant) for the first (second) measurement. In a process to understand the nature of the discrimination we further found that persons’ sex responsible for applicants’ selection significantly varied; the estimated probability of males to practice occupational access discrimination against gays was by 0.350 higher than that of female. Moreover, males were found to practice insignificant wage discrimination of 0.032 against gays, while female were found to provide gays with an insignificant wage premium of 0.006 on average. The current research contributes to the small academic literature on the economics of discrimination according to sexual orientation in Europe.Field Experiment, Sexual Preference, Hiring Discrimination, Wage Discrimination

    Sexual Orientation, Demography and Labor Relations

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    We use data from the 2008-09 Athens Area Study (AAS) to provide the first evidence on the relationship between sexual orientation and earnings in Greece. The AAS asks male adults a direct question about their sexual orientation: about 4.52% self-identify as homosexuals and 0.86% as bisexuals. Sexual orientation minorities are found to receive significantly lower monthly wages than heterosexual workers of the same age, education, health status and occupational characteristics. Moreover, there is statistically significant evidence that homosexual and bisexual men have higher unemployment rates than similarly situated heterosexuals. Of further importance is the finding that sexual orientation minorities who are also older, less educated, blue collar workers, and/or immigrants are statistically more vulnerable to wage discrimination and unemployment than comparable heterosexuals. Moreover, in the current research, in order to better understand the determinants of the wage gaps, we compare homosexual/bisexual men with both married and unmarried heterosexual men. By making these comparisons, we are able to disentangle the penalty associated with being unmarried from other human capital explanations of the wage gap. Given the legal actions in Greece that have the potential to affect sexual orientation minorities, it is important to understand the relationships between sexual orientation, demography and labor market.Sexual Orientation, Wage Differentials, Labour Discrimination

    Labour Discrimination as a Symptom of HIV: Experimental Evaluation: The Greek Case

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    In the present study, we conducted the first ever Correspondence Test in order to test whether job applicants who voluntarily disclose their HIV infections face prejudices in the selection process in Greece. Resumes differing only in an applicant’s health status were faxed to advertised job openings. The outcomes imply that employers use health conditions as a factor when reviewing resumes. The rate of net discrimination against HIV-positive males was between 82.6% and 97.8%. Similarly, net discrimination against HIV-positive females was between 81.6% and 98.8%. Interestingly, the degree of discrimination was randomly assigned and unrelated to an applicant’s education level and job status. The current study develops a new methodology that could promote researchers worldwide to conduct similar surveys. As efforts to address HIV discrimination grow, so does the need for a set of standard discrimination indicators that have been tested and validated.Correspondence Test, Labour Discrimination, Probit Model, AIDS/HIV.

    Ethnic Discrimination in the Greek Housing Market

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    The current study employs a field experiment to assess the degree of discrimination against female Albanians in Greek housing markets. We divide rental housing into three categories by rent and designate the different levels of rent as working-, middle-, and upper-class. Albanians are significantly less likely to be asked to visit advertised rental housing in all three categories, while rental penalties for Albanians are also significant. Interestingly, more discrimination was observed with higher status rental properties. The outcomes suggest that the existence of isolated and racially segregated housing may be a result of prejudice and/or negative stereotypes against Albanians.Field Experiment, Ethnic Discrimination, Housing Discrimination

    Corporate Social Responsibility and Wage Discrimination in Unionized Oligopoly

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    The European labour markets are characterized by the existence of trade unions with extensive coverage whereas wage contracts are typically determined through decentralized firm-union bargaining. On the other hand, as it particularly refers to migrant and ethnic minority groups, equally-skilled workers often face lower reservation wages. We argue that these facts may lead unions to opt for discriminatory wage contracts across groups of employees. At the same time firms may nonetheless opt for non-discrimination in wages insofar as they would profitably “advertise” it as an exertion of corporate social responsibility (csr). We show that, if the consumers’ valuation of non-discrimination is sufficiently high, the latter strategies would as well be compatible with the unions’ best interest in the equilibrium. Otherwise, we propose that to efficiently combat wage discrimination policy makers should instead of firms undertake csradvertisement in the event of non-discrimination. Yet, such an antidiscrimination policy would always entail a net loss in social welfare.Unions, Oligopoly, Discriminatory Wage Contracts, Antidiscrimination Policy, Corporate Social Responsibility.
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