275 research outputs found

    Impact of in-house specialty pharmacy on access to novel androgen axis inhibitors in men with advanced prostate cancer

    Get PDF
    Introduction: Novel androgen axis inhibitors are standard of care treatments in advanced prostate cancer. The billed amounts for these medications are often very high, which may create significant financial toxicity for patients and lead to delays in treatment. Our institution implemented an in-house specialty pharmacy in 2014, that provides these medications and evaluates copay assistance options for all patients. We evaluated the program’s impact on out of pocket cost (OOP) and turnaround time (TAT). Methods: We reviewed available internal specialty pharmacy records to identify prescriptions for abiraterone or enzalutamide filled between 1/1/17 and 12/31/18. Payments were stratified by primary payment (amount reimbursed by the patient’s prescription plan based on the benefit’s design) and copayment assistance. Turnaround times (TAT) in business days were stratified by prescriptions requiring intervention (prior authorization, copayment assistance, or insufficient inventory) and clean prescriptions (those requiring no intervention). Results: One thousand four hundred seventeen prescriptions for 175 unique patients requiring abiraterone (n=869, 61.3%) or enzalutamide (n=548, 38.7%) were filled through the institution’s specialty pharmacy. The average amount paid by primary payer was 9,492.96fora30daysupply(range:9,492.96 for a 30 day supply (range: 3,382.48-12,939.84).Averagequotedcopaywas12,939.84). Average quoted copay was 577.53 (range 3.08−3.08-10,560.39). 64% of patients received copayment assistance. Average OOP cost per prescription after co-pay assistance was 100.83(range100.83 (range 0-$8556.64). Three patients declined treatment due to cost (1.7% of overall). Average TAT was 2.98 days for clean prescriptions and 3.36 days for prescriptions needing intervention (p=0.055). Discussion: OOP cost varied significantly based on plan design and copayment assistance eligibility. The majority of patients received copayment assistance, which markedly reduced OOP cost. Cost rarely precluded access to treatment. TAT was not significantly prolonged for prescriptions requiring intervention. Further studies to determine impact of pharmacy type on access to specialty medications are indicated

    What’s in a Name: Exposing Gender Bias in Student Ratings of Teaching

    Get PDF
    Student ratings of teaching play a significant role in career outcomes for higher education instructors. Although instructor gender has been shown to play an important role in influencing student ratings, the extent and nature of that role remains contested. While difficult to separate gender from teaching practices in person, it is possible to disguise an instructor’s gender identity online. In our experiment, assistant instructors in an online class each operated under two different gender identities. Students rated the male identity significantly higher than the female identity, regardless of the instructor’s actual gender, demonstrating gender bias. Given the vital role that student ratings play in academic career trajectories, this finding warrants considerable attention

    What’s in a Name: Exposing Gender Bias in Student Ratings of Teaching

    Get PDF
    Student ratings of teaching play a significant role in career outcomes for higher education instructors. Although instructor gender has been shown to play an important role in influencing student ratings, the extent and nature of that role remains contested. While difficult to separate gender from teaching practices in person, it is possible to disguise an instructor’s gender identity online. In our experiment, assistant instructors in an online class each operated under two different gender identities. Students rated the male identity significantly higher than the female identity, regardless of the instructor’s actual gender, demonstrating gender bias. Given the vital role that student ratings play in academic career trajectories, this finding warrants considerable attention

    What’s in a Name: Exposing Gender Bias in Student Ratings of Teaching

    Get PDF
    Student ratings of teaching play a significant role in career outcomes for higher education instructors. Although instructor gender has been shown to play an important role in influencing student ratings, the extent and nature of that role remains contested. While difficult to separate gender from teaching practices in person, it is possible to disguise an instructor’s gender identity online. In our experiment, assistant instructors in an online class each operated under two different gender identities. Students rated the male identity significantly higher than the female identity, regardless of the instructor’s actual gender, demonstrating gender bias. Given the vital role that student ratings play in academic career trajectories, this finding warrants considerable attention

    What’s in a Name: Exposing Gender Bias in Student Ratings of Teaching

    Get PDF
    Student ratings of teaching play a significant role in career outcomes for higher education instructors. Although instructor gender has been shown to play an important role in influencing student ratings, the extent and nature of that role remains contested. While difficult to separate gender from teaching practices in person, it is possible to disguise an instructor’s gender identity online. In our experiment, assistant instructors in an online class each operated under two different gender identities. Students rated the male identity significantly higher than the female identity, regardless of the instructor’s actual gender, demonstrating gender bias. Given the vital role that student ratings play in academic career trajectories, this finding warrants considerable attention

    Turbulence-Flame Interactions - The Mechanisms of Flame Strain and Wrinkling

    Full text link
    Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/76041/1/AIAA-2008-4572-355.pd

    “It’s Just Nice Having a Real Teacher”: Student Perceptions of Online versus Face-to-Face Instruction

    Get PDF
    With recent increases in online enrollment, undergraduate students are far more likely to experience an online learning environment than they were in the past. While existing literature provides general insight into reasons why students may or may not prefer online instruction, it is unclear whether these preferences are shaped by student’s perceptions of online learning or actual experience with online courses. To address this gap, undergraduate students enrolled in either online (n=370) or face-to-face (n=360) courses were surveyed about their course format preference. A content analysis of the responses was performed with the findings suggesting that 1) student perceptions may be based on old typologies of distance education akin to correspondence courses, regardless of actual experience with online courses, and 2) course preferences are related to issues involving teaching presence and self-regulated learning. The implications of this research for developing more effective online pedagogy are discussed

    Priorities in policy and management when existing biodiversity stressors interact with climate-change

    Get PDF
    There are three key drivers of the biodiversity crisis: (1) the well known existing threats to biodiversity such as habitat loss, invasive pest species and resource exploitation; (2) direct effects of climate-change, such as on coastal and high elevatio
    • 

    corecore