171 research outputs found

    THE IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON INVESTMENT AND AGRICULTURAL RESTRUCTURING: EVIDENCE FROM POLISH AGRICULTURE

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    We analyze the impact of assistance programs offered by food processors to supplying farms based on an original survey of dairy farms and companies in Poland. The results show that these programs have had a significant impact at the farm level: on on-farm investments; product quality; and farm restructuring.Agricultural and Food Policy,

    Labour adjustment in agriculture: Assessing the heterogeneity across transition countries

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    A standard model of labour adjustment in times of economic transition assumes a constant impact of variables like sectoral income differences, unemployment or the relative size of the agricultural sector. This paper shows for a panel of 29 European and Asian transition countries that the standard model fails to take the heterogeneity of determinants of sectoral labour adjustment properly into account. A random coefficients model reveals quite heterogeneous influences of the intersectoral income ratio, the relative size of agricultural employment, the unemployment rate, and the general level of economic development on a measure of sectoral labour adjustment across transition countries. Moreover, for selected determinants the estimated coefficients show opposing signs.Labor and Human Capital,

    Job creation and job destruction in the EU agriculture

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    This is the first paper to study job creation and destruction in EU agriculture. We disaggregate employment patterns and job flows into detailed intra-sectoral labour adjustment dynamics based on farm level panel observations from 1989-2006. We find that: (1) job creation and destruction rates in EU agriculture are high compared to other sectors; (2) there are important differences in job creation and destruction rates between different member states; (3) this can be attributed to differing initial farm structures: member states with small average farm sizes display higher job creation and destruction rates than those with larger average farm sizes.Job creation, job destruction, FADN, EU, agricultural labour adjustment, Agricultural and Food Policy, Farm Management, Land Economics/Use,

    Foreign investment, supermarkets, and the restructuring of supply chains: Evidence from Eastern European dairy sectors.

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    Investment; Investments; Working; Foreign investment; Supermarkets; Restructuring; Supply chains; Supply chain; Sector;

    TRANSITION AND AGRICULTURAL LABOUR

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    The paper provides an explanation for the wide variation in agricultural labour adjustments during transition. In particular, we analyse how various factors including initial conditions, price liberalisation, subsidy cuts, and institutional reforms affecting ownership of assets and the governance and organisation of agricultural production have affected labour use in agriculture. We conclude that all these factors have affected agricultural employment, and that especially the institutional reforms are key to understanding the remarkable differences in agricultural labour adjustments among transition countries.Labor and Human Capital,

    HUMAN CAPITAL AND LABOR FLOWS OUT OF THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR: EVIDENCE FROM SLOVENIA

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    This paper analyses of determinants of agricultural labor flows and the role of human capital in this process on the basis of the Slovenian Labor Force Surveys for the years 1993 to 1999. The household heads living in larger households, having a larger farm size, and working full-time (more hours per week) in permanent jobs are more likely to stay in agricultural employment. The empirical evidence clearly suggests that human capital plays a crucial role for labor mobility and labor adjustment. Young, female and educated individuals are more likely to enter into employment in non-agricultural, particularly service activities. There are remarkable circular flows of elderly and less educated persons between being employed in agriculture, unemployment and retirement pools. Small-scale and part-time farming provide temporary employment opportunities. Investments in human capital to improve quality of labor in agriculture and to increase mobility and flexibility of labor are the key issues in synergy reducing labor mismatch and improving efficiency in labor flow adjustment.Slovenia, Human capital, Labor adjustment, Labor and Human Capital,

    DAIRY MARKETS, POLICIES, AND TRADE IN EASTERN EUROPE AND THE FORMER SOVIET UNION

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    This paper was presented at the INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN LIVESTOCK PRODUCTS SYMPOSIUM in Auckland, New Zealand, January 18-19, 2001. The Symposium was sponsored by: the International Agricultural Trade Research Consortium, the Venture Trust, Massey University, New Zealand, and the Centre for Applied Economics and Policy Studies, Massey University. Dietary changes, especially in developing countries, are driving a massive increase in demand for livestock products. The objective of this symposium was to examine the consequences of this phenomenon, which some have even called a "revolution." How are dietary patterns changing, and can increased demands for livestock products be satisfied from domestic resources? If so, at what cost? What will be the flow-on impacts, for example, in terms of increased demands for feedgrains and the pressures for change within marketing systems? A supply-side response has been the continued development of large-scale, urban-based industrial livestock production systems that in many cases give rise to environmental concerns. If additional imports seem required, where will they originate and what about food security in the importing regions? How might market access conditions be re-negotiated to make increased imports achievable? Other important issues discussed involved food safety, animal health and welfare and the adoption of biotechnology, and their interactions with the negotiation of reforms to domestic and trade policies. Individual papers from this conference are available on AgEcon Search. If you would like to see the complete agenda and set of papers from this conference, please visit the IATRC Symposium web page at: http://www1.umn.edu/iatrc.intro.htmAgricultural and Food Policy, Marketing, International Relations/Trade,

    Large Scale Land Investments and Food Security in Agro-Pastoral Areas of Ethiopia

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    There is an ongoing debate about the impact of large scale land investments on the livelihoods of rural households in developing countries. This study investigates the impact of large scale land investments on households\u27 food security in Ethiopia. The findings show proximity to large scale land investments is associated with higher food intake with an average treatment effect of 744.71 kcal per day per adult. This is mainly because of the availability relatively good natural capitals near to large scale land investments. Large scale land investments should make sure that the local community has access to grazing to improve food security of the local communities
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