10 research outputs found

    DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EVALUATION OF ROTARY HOT-AIR DRYER FOR THE VALUE ADDITION OF FRUIT WASTE

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    Citrus waste is solid residue that remains after fresh fruits are squeezed for their juices. Pakistan is among the top ten citrus producing countries in the world. Pakistan is contributing 2.16 million tons per annum in fruit waste generation. Fresh food waste is often used locally to feed animals as milk enhancer. When fresh fruit are squeezed, a solid residue is produced which is commonly known as citrus waste. Fresh citrus waste has a natural acidity, but it is still a perishable product due to its high moisture content and soluble sugar. Dehydration method is usually applied for the removal of moisture content up to less than 10 % to increases the shelf life for easy handling and transportation. The present study enables the design of a rotary-hot air dryer having an internal rotating body. The drying efficiency increased with the increase in the internal temperature and the air flow rate in the rotary drum, while the drying efficiency decreases with increasing the drum speed. The drying process provided the optimal results with respect to drying time and Vitamin C concentration. The present designed hot-air dryer provides fundamentals for fruit pulp industry who can easily adopt this technology. This dryer can be installed within pulp industry and waste can be processed at source point. The dehydration process increases the shelf life of citrus fruit waste and it will be available throughout the year around the country. The dehydrated material can enhance the milk quantity of animal

    Impact of COVID-19 on cardiovascular testing in the United States versus the rest of the world

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    Objectives: This study sought to quantify and compare the decline in volumes of cardiovascular procedures between the United States and non-US institutions during the early phase of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the care of many non-COVID-19 illnesses. Reductions in diagnostic cardiovascular testing around the world have led to concerns over the implications of reduced testing for cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality. Methods: Data were submitted to the INCAPS-COVID (International Atomic Energy Agency Non-Invasive Cardiology Protocols Study of COVID-19), a multinational registry comprising 909 institutions in 108 countries (including 155 facilities in 40 U.S. states), assessing the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on volumes of diagnostic cardiovascular procedures. Data were obtained for April 2020 and compared with volumes of baseline procedures from March 2019. We compared laboratory characteristics, practices, and procedure volumes between U.S. and non-U.S. facilities and between U.S. geographic regions and identified factors associated with volume reduction in the United States. Results: Reductions in the volumes of procedures in the United States were similar to those in non-U.S. facilities (68% vs. 63%, respectively; p = 0.237), although U.S. facilities reported greater reductions in invasive coronary angiography (69% vs. 53%, respectively; p < 0.001). Significantly more U.S. facilities reported increased use of telehealth and patient screening measures than non-U.S. facilities, such as temperature checks, symptom screenings, and COVID-19 testing. Reductions in volumes of procedures differed between U.S. regions, with larger declines observed in the Northeast (76%) and Midwest (74%) than in the South (62%) and West (44%). Prevalence of COVID-19, staff redeployments, outpatient centers, and urban centers were associated with greater reductions in volume in U.S. facilities in a multivariable analysis. Conclusions: We observed marked reductions in U.S. cardiovascular testing in the early phase of the pandemic and significant variability between U.S. regions. The association between reductions of volumes and COVID-19 prevalence in the United States highlighted the need for proactive efforts to maintain access to cardiovascular testing in areas most affected by outbreaks of COVID-19 infection

    Mortality from gastrointestinal congenital anomalies at 264 hospitals in 74 low-income, middle-income, and high-income countries: a multicentre, international, prospective cohort study

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    Summary Background Congenital anomalies are the fifth leading cause of mortality in children younger than 5 years globally. Many gastrointestinal congenital anomalies are fatal without timely access to neonatal surgical care, but few studies have been done on these conditions in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). We compared outcomes of the seven most common gastrointestinal congenital anomalies in low-income, middle-income, and high-income countries globally, and identified factors associated with mortality. Methods We did a multicentre, international prospective cohort study of patients younger than 16 years, presenting to hospital for the first time with oesophageal atresia, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, intestinal atresia, gastroschisis, exomphalos, anorectal malformation, and Hirschsprung’s disease. Recruitment was of consecutive patients for a minimum of 1 month between October, 2018, and April, 2019. We collected data on patient demographics, clinical status, interventions, and outcomes using the REDCap platform. Patients were followed up for 30 days after primary intervention, or 30 days after admission if they did not receive an intervention. The primary outcome was all-cause, in-hospital mortality for all conditions combined and each condition individually, stratified by country income status. We did a complete case analysis. Findings We included 3849 patients with 3975 study conditions (560 with oesophageal atresia, 448 with congenital diaphragmatic hernia, 681 with intestinal atresia, 453 with gastroschisis, 325 with exomphalos, 991 with anorectal malformation, and 517 with Hirschsprung’s disease) from 264 hospitals (89 in high-income countries, 166 in middleincome countries, and nine in low-income countries) in 74 countries. Of the 3849 patients, 2231 (58·0%) were male. Median gestational age at birth was 38 weeks (IQR 36–39) and median bodyweight at presentation was 2·8 kg (2·3–3·3). Mortality among all patients was 37 (39·8%) of 93 in low-income countries, 583 (20·4%) of 2860 in middle-income countries, and 50 (5·6%) of 896 in high-income countries (p<0·0001 between all country income groups). Gastroschisis had the greatest difference in mortality between country income strata (nine [90·0%] of ten in lowincome countries, 97 [31·9%] of 304 in middle-income countries, and two [1·4%] of 139 in high-income countries; p≤0·0001 between all country income groups). Factors significantly associated with higher mortality for all patients combined included country income status (low-income vs high-income countries, risk ratio 2·78 [95% CI 1·88–4·11], p<0·0001; middle-income vs high-income countries, 2·11 [1·59–2·79], p<0·0001), sepsis at presentation (1·20 [1·04–1·40], p=0·016), higher American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score at primary intervention (ASA 4–5 vs ASA 1–2, 1·82 [1·40–2·35], p<0·0001; ASA 3 vs ASA 1–2, 1·58, [1·30–1·92], p<0·0001]), surgical safety checklist not used (1·39 [1·02–1·90], p=0·035), and ventilation or parenteral nutrition unavailable when needed (ventilation 1·96, [1·41–2·71], p=0·0001; parenteral nutrition 1·35, [1·05–1·74], p=0·018). Administration of parenteral nutrition (0·61, [0·47–0·79], p=0·0002) and use of a peripherally inserted central catheter (0·65 [0·50–0·86], p=0·0024) or percutaneous central line (0·69 [0·48–1·00], p=0·049) were associated with lower mortality. Interpretation Unacceptable differences in mortality exist for gastrointestinal congenital anomalies between lowincome, middle-income, and high-income countries. Improving access to quality neonatal surgical care in LMICs will be vital to achieve Sustainable Development Goal 3.2 of ending preventable deaths in neonates and children younger than 5 years by 2030

    The Critical Discourse Analysis of Press Release andConference in Response to Special Court Verdict: Halliday’s Systemic Functional Linguistics Approach

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    The current study is aimed at to analyze the elite forces public relations department press release and its representative’s press conference in response to special court decision in distinguishing figure of elite department case. The specially constituted court announced its short verdict order on 17 December 2019 and complete decision on 19 December 2019. Former President retired General Pervez was sentenced to death on the charge of high treason under article 6 of the constitution of Pakistan. The public relations department of elite forces reacted to the special court short decision by issuing press release No.PR-206/2019 the same day. The elite forces representative addressed a brief press conference during which he avoided to take questions on 19 December 2019 after the complete decision court order. Systemic functional grammar/linguistic theory of Hallidayhas been employed in this research study for the purpose of analysis. The researchers have focused only the ideational meta-function from SFG. The transitivity and transformational techniques of nominalization and passivization have been used as major analytical instruments in this research study. The findings show that nominalization and passivization in the press release has been used to be objective and impersonal in the criticism. Verbal processes are working as awareness creators among the listeners about the speaker’s institution. The discussion reveals that writer/speaker has used transitivity process, nominalization and passivization discursively and he is affecting listeners’ ideology telling them that the institution he is representing needs their support in the The current study is aimed at to analyze the elite forces public relations department press release and its representative’s press conference in response to special court decision in distinguishing figure of elite department case. The specially constituted court announced its short verdict order on 17 December 2019 and complete decision on 19 December 2019. Former President retired General Pervez was sentenced to death on the charge of high treason under article 6 of the constitution of Pakistan. The public relations department of elite forces reacted to the special court short decision by issuing press release No.PR-206/2019 the same day. The elite forces representative addressed a brief press conference during which he avoided to take questions on 19 December 2019 after the complete decision court order. Systemic functional grammar/linguistic theory of Hallidayhas been employed in this research study for the purpose of analysis. The researchers have focused only the ideational meta-function from SFG. The transitivity and transformational techniques of nominalization and passivization have been used as major analytical instruments in this research study. The findings show that nominalization and passivization in the press release has been used to be objective and impersonal in the criticism. Verbal processes are working as awareness creators among the listeners about the speaker’s institution. The discussion reveals that writer/speaker has used transitivity process, nominalization and passivization discursively and he is affecting listeners’ ideology telling them that the institution he is representing needs their support in the current specific matter

    Moringa oleifera Lam.ameliorates the muscles function recovery following an induced insult to the Sciatic nerve in a mouse model

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    Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is an incapacitating situation and has no effective therapy until now. We examined the possible role of crude leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam. at 200 mg/kg body weight in accelerating the functional regain in the sciatic nerve lesion induced mouse model (Adult male albino mice (BALB/c). Motor functions were evaluated by using the sciatic functional index, muscle mass, and muscle grip strength measurement, whereas the sensory functions were evaluated by using the hot plate test. Blood glucose levels and blood cell composition were also analyzed. We found that the Moringa oleifera crude leaves endorse the sensory and motor functions reclamation following the PNI with a statistically significant difference (p &lt; .05). It also revitalizes the gastrocnemius muscle by mass restoration with glycemic management perspective. Conclusively, the crude powder of Moringa oleifera leaves exhibited a function restoration boosting property and further detailed studies for its application as a therapeutic agent are strongly recommended

    Methanolic extract of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) escalates functional restoration following a compression injury to the sciatic nerve in a mouse model

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    Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is one of the major health concerns faced by the community at present. Till now, available therapeutic approaches are ineffective to fully heal a nerve injury and to assure the functional recovery entirely. Natural compounds can prove attractive and effective drug candidates to bridge up this gap. In this scenario, the present study was designed to explore the role of methanolic extract of Foeniculum vulgare (F. vulgare) seeds in accelerating the function regain following a sciatic nerve injury in a mouse model. For this purpose, 12 adult healthy albino mice (BALB/C), 8–10 weeks old, were grouped as control (Ctrl, n = 6) and treatment (Trt, n = 6). The treated group was given methanolic extract of F. vulgare (200 mg/kg per day) started from the day of nerve crush until the end of the study. The sensorimotor function regain assessed by hot plate test, grip strength, and SFI assessments was found significantly (p &lt; .05) ameliorated in the F. vulgare-treated group. A prominent improvement in the muscle mass of the treated group further affirmed these effects. Furthermore, morphometric analysis of muscle fiber cross-sectional area of tibialis anterior muscle between groups revealed a noticeable improvement in muscle fibers’ diameter of the treated group. Conclusively, these findings suggest that F. vulgare methanolic extract exhibits the potential to escalate functional recovery following a peripheral nerve injury. However, the real players of this extract and the mechanism involved in boosting functional restoration need to be dissected by further work

    Purification and Characterization of Novel α-Amylase from Bacillus subtilis KIBGE HAS

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    Purification of extracellular α-amylase from Bacillus subtilis KIBGE HAS was carried out by ultrafiltration, ammonium sulfate precipitation and gel filtration chromatography. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity with 96.3-fold purification with specific activity of 13011 U/mg. The molecular weight of purified α-amylase was found to be 56,000 Da by SDS-PAGE. Characteristics of extracellular α-amylase showed that the enzyme had a Km and Vmax value of 2.68 mg/ml and 1773 U/ml, respectively. The optimum activity was observed at pH 7.5 in 0.1 M phosphate buffer at 50°C. The amino acid composition of the enzyme showed that the enzyme is rich in neutral/non polar amino acids and less in acidic/polar and basic amino acids. The N-terminal protein sequence of 10 residues was found to be as Ser-Ser-Asn-Lys-Leu-Thr-Thr-Ser-Trp-Gly (S-S-N-K-L-T-T-S-W-G). Furthermore, the protein was not N-terminally blocked. The sequence of α-amylase from B. subtilis KIBGE HAS was a novel sequence and showed no homology to other reported α-amylases from Bacillus strain

    Burden of disease scenarios for 204 countries and territories, 2022–2050: a forecasting analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2021