21 research outputs found

    Analysis of Factors Affecting the Stress Level of Female Engineering Students

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    This paper presents factors that affect the stress level of female engineering students The questionnaire is based on the expectations which the female students have of their institutions as well as from their families Randomly collected data from 200 students is analyzed on software MINITAB 14 Six sigma techniques of Affinity diagram Pareto Analysis SIPOC analysis Cause and Effect matrix and Scatter plots are used It is observed that teachers discouraging attitude to take females on industrial trips and lack of class tests during the academic session are the most critical factors This work can guide the teachers as well as the educational leaders to precisely focus their resources for minimizing stress among female engineering student

    DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EVALUATION OF ROTARY HOT-AIR DRYER FOR THE VALUE ADDITION OF FRUIT WASTE

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    Citrus waste is solid residue that remains after fresh fruits are squeezed for their juices. Pakistan is among the top ten citrus producing countries in the world. Pakistan is contributing 2.16 million tons per annum in fruit waste generation. Fresh food waste is often used locally to feed animals as milk enhancer. When fresh fruit are squeezed, a solid residue is produced which is commonly known as citrus waste. Fresh citrus waste has a natural acidity, but it is still a perishable product due to its high moisture content and soluble sugar. Dehydration method is usually applied for the removal of moisture content up to less than 10 % to increases the shelf life for easy handling and transportation. The present study enables the design of a rotary-hot air dryer having an internal rotating body. The drying efficiency increased with the increase in the internal temperature and the air flow rate in the rotary drum, while the drying efficiency decreases with increasing the drum speed. The drying process provided the optimal results with respect to drying time and Vitamin C concentration. The present designed hot-air dryer provides fundamentals for fruit pulp industry who can easily adopt this technology. This dryer can be installed within pulp industry and waste can be processed at source point. The dehydration process increases the shelf life of citrus fruit waste and it will be available throughout the year around the country. The dehydrated material can enhance the milk quantity of animal

    Evaluation of bacterial strains for the induction of plant biochemicals, nutritional contents and isozymes in barley

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    The controlled placement of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in poly­(styrene-<i>b</i>-isoprene-<i>b</i>-styrene) [SIS] triblock copolymer thin films was achieved by tuning the surface chemistry of the AuNPs. Facile thiol ligand exchanges permitted quick and thorough exploration of the surface chemistry effects on AuNP segregation behavior. By using thiol-functionalized polystyrene (PS-SH) or 1-dodecanethiol (C<sub>12</sub>SH) ligands to tune nanoparticle surface chemistry, AuNPs were selectively incorporated into either the polystyrene (PS) or the polyisoprene (PI) domains. Nanocomposite polymer films were characterized by atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and TEM tomography. AuNPs synthesized with a C<sub>12</sub>SH capping ligand preferentially segregated into PI-rich domains. However, after exchanging C<sub>12</sub>SH with PS-SH ligands to a C<sub>12</sub>SH:PS-SH molar ratio of approximately 5:1, AuNPs showed an affinity for PS-rich domains. The C<sub>12</sub>SH:PS-SH transition ratio was much higher than expected, based on molecule-averaged surface energy arguments that predicted a ratio of 0.4:1 to 0.8:1. The unexpected transition ratio was rationalized according to the area-averaged enthalpic contributions of the capping ligands. Furthermore, mixing and incorporating PI- and PS-preferential AuNPs created a well-mixed nanocomposite, which highlights the versatility of the AuNPs

    A Comparative Study of Banking Industry Based on Appraisal System, Rewards and Employee Performance

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    Purpose- This study was aimed to throw light on the appraisal and reward system, and its effects on job satisfaction and employee performance in the banking sector of Pakistan.&nbsp; Design/Methodology- &nbsp;The research was based on primary data collected from the two major cities of Pakistan, Lahore and Kasur. A total of 250 structured questionnaires were rotated to Islamic and conventional banks in different parts of both cities. Out of these 222 questionnaires were returned and were in usable form. The data so collected was analyzed with the help of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). statistical techniques such as regression analysis, correlation analysis, descriptive analysis and t-test were used.&nbsp; Findings- The results of the study revealed that appraisal was negatively correlated while the reward system was positively correlated to employee performance.&nbsp; Practical implications- This research will help banks in reviewing their policies to make optimum use of their employees to meet certain goals of the bank. This research reveals that the appraisal system of the bank is affecting negatively on employees performance. This study will help in developing criteria which will help managers to appraise the employees in an effective way

    Factors Affecting life Satisfaction of Employees under Financial Threat

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    Purpose- Life satisfaction is a level in which feelings of people are affected positively or negatively about their lives. Employees whose lives are more satisfied are generally more committed with their works, reveal low absenteeism and more efficient in doing duties. This study aims to investigate what factors affect life satisfaction of employees in the banking sector specifically in the Pakistani context.&nbsp; Design/Methodology- The target population of this study was non-managerial employees of banks in Lahore.&nbsp; Total 340 questionnaires were distributed among employees in which 60 were filled incomplete and 30 were lost. The data were collected through self-administered questionnaires distributed to 250 respondents.&nbsp; Findings- The findings of structural equation modeling showed that economic hardship, prospective anxiety, and work stress has a negative impact on life satisfaction. Results also show that economic hardship and prospective anxiety has a positive impact on the financial threat. The financial threat is negatively related to life satisfaction.&nbsp; Practical Implications- It can also help managers to understand the insight of employee adverse financial decision making. Managers also make guidelines which may minimize all the consequences of psychological distress. It also helps in identifying methods to reduce anxiety, stress and economic hardship

    Deliberate self-harm and attachment: mediating and moderating roles of depression, anxiety, social support and interpersonal problems among Pakistani school going adolescents

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    Introduction: In Pakistan there is dearth of research on deliberate self-harm (DSH) and its predictors among adolescents. While the lack of research in Pakistan can be partly attributed to the sacrilegious status, criminalization and stigmatization attached to DSH, it is also an attribute of paucity of Urdu versions of the standardized psychological instruments. Previous research in developed countries has indicated that attachment theory can be used as a useful framework to understand the development of austere psychopathologies like DSH, as well as for studying pathways of interaction of interpersonal and intrapersonal factors of psychopathologies. In this study, standardized psychological instruments are translated into Urdu language as a first step. These instruments are then used to study pathways of interaction of interpersonal and intrapersonal factors of DSH, conceptualized within attachment framework. Method: The study was conducted in two steps. In step 1, Youth Health Risk Behavior Survey (YHRB), Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-32 (IIP-32) and Significant Others Scale (SOS), were translated into Urdu language. Along with these scales, Urdu translated versions of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Adolescent Relationship Scales Questionnaire (ARSQ), Life Events scale (LES) from CASE questionnaire and Family Affluence Scale-II (FAS-II) were reviewed for accuracy of translation through expert judgement and psychometric evaluation. Secondly, a cross sectional survey was conducted with 1290 adolescents (10 - 19 years age) using the translated Urdu versions of the instruments and demographic pro forma. Structural equation modelling was used to study the pathways of associations between predictors of DSH. Results: The extensive process of translation resulted in establishment of semantic, content, technical and construct equivalence of the translated instruments with the original English versions. Multiple imputation was performed to account for missing values in SPSS 20. Important structural adaptations were made in the scales based on factor analyses conducted in M plus. After modifications, all scales showed satisfactory CFI (≥ 0.90) and RMSEA (≤ 0.06). Results of the survey indicated that the prevalence of DSH (with, without and ambivalent suicidal intentions) was 7%. Two SEM models were constructed involving both mediation and moderation pathways. Results of Model 1 showed association of attachment with DSH was double mediated by social support, depression and anxiety. Model 2 also confirmed association of attachment with DSH with double mediation through relationship style problems, depression and anxiety. In order to understand the contextual picture of the concepts studied in this research both SEM models were also constructed by controlling for demographic factors. This resulted in confirming age, gender and family affluence as significant contributors but with very small effects. Discussion and conclusion: In the present study translation of the instruments helped in building a reservoir for future research. The results of translation and validation of instruments indicated that cultural differences, language needs and age must be accounted for while using standardized psychological instruments. Taking into consideration specific cultural and demographic background of Pakistan, this study also confirms the key role of attachment in influencing interaction of predictors of DSH. It is suggested that intrapersonal and interpersonal factors are influential points of intervention for designing clinical, school and community based awareness and prevention programs for DSH. The thesis also discusses the implications for policy guidelines along with recommendations for future research and other applications of the study

    Effectiveness of Problem-Solving Method in Developing Metacognitive Knowledge at Secondary School Level

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    This study was aimed to investigate the effectiveness of Problem-Solving Method (PSM)by using the acronym IDEAL in developing metacognitive knowledge at secondary level. The research was modeled in experiment-control groups design. A random selection of 120 students was taken from grade IX in the subject of General Science. These schools were randomly selected from the district on tehsil bases. 60 students from each school were divided into both control and experimental groups 30 students each randomly. The Revised Metacognitive Assessment Inventory (RMAI) was used to determine students’ metacognitive knowledge i.e., declarative, procedural and conditional knowledge. An Independent Samples t-test was used for analysis of the data. The lecture method was used in the control groups while the PSM was employed in the experimental group. The post-test results of the experimental and control groups on the bases of knowledge about cognition i.e., declarative, procedural and condition knowledge shows the difference was significant to reject the null hypothesis of H01 to H04 confirming a significant difference between the post-test of experimental groups taught through lecture and problem-solving method. The significant difference between the mean scores of both tests shows that students taught through the problem-solving method had prominent increase in metacognitive knowledge i.e., declarative procedural and conditional knowledge

    تفسیر الاکلیل فی استنباط ا لتنزیل کی روشنی میں ترک اور حبشہ سے جہا داور ترکِ جہاد کا شرعی حکم: Legal Position of Jihad with Turk and Abyssinia in the light of TafseerAl Ikleel Fi Istimbat ul Tanzeel

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    Belief in the Hereafter is one of the basic tenets of Islam, denying and deviating from it is in fact tantamount to denying and deviating from Islam. Included. In this material and physical world, the disappearance of these objects from sight is to some extent a weakening of faith in the Hereafter, but in order to cure it, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) foretold some signs and wonders before the Day of Resurrection. It is obligatory. The effect of these prophecies is to strengthen the faith of the Muslims and also to support the truthfulness of the prophethood of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). The only reliance is on believing in all these unseen matters while obeying Muhammad. As a Muslim, it is also important to believe in the reality of all these prophecies narrated by the Holy Prophet. These are some of the distant signs of the Hour, such as the resurrection of the Holy Prophet, the martyrdom of Usman Ghani, the incident of Jamal Wa siffin, the martyrdom of Hussain, may Allah be pleased with him, etc. There is also jihad against Turks and Abyssinians. There will be war between Muslims and Turks before the Day of Resurrection and a description of their attributes And especially the commentators of the seventh century AH who were present at the time of the Tatar invasion have openly stated this prediction of the Holy Prophet, since in the beginning of Islam it was forbidden to oppose them. Not only is it permissible to do so, but the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) also predicted it with his blessed tongue. In the article under discussion, a brief introduction of the first author and then a research review of the said title will also be presented in the light of Tafsir-ul-Aklil
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