4,560 research outputs found

    A CO Survey of Gravitationally Lensed Quasars with the IRAM Interferometer

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    We present the results of a CO survey of gravitationally lensed quasars, conducted with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer over the last three years. Among the 18 objects surveyed, one was detected in CO line emission, while six were detected in the continuum at 3mm and three in the continuum at 1mm. The low CO detection rate may at least in part be due to uncertainties in the redshifts derived from quasar broad emission lines. The detected CO source, the z=3.2 radio quiet quasar MG0751+2716, is quite strong in the CO(4-3) line and in the millimeter/submillimeter continuum, the latter being emission from cool dust. The integrated CO line flux is 5.96 +- 0.45 Jy.km/s, and the total molecular gas mass is estimated to be in the range M(H_2) = 1.6-3.1 X 10^9 solar masses.Comment: 5 pages, 2 figures, uses aa.cls and psfig.st

    High-resolution [C II] imaging of HDF850.1 reveals a merging galaxy at z=5.185

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    New high-resolution maps with the IRAM Interferometer of the redshifted [C II] 158 micron line and the 0.98mm dust continuum of HDF850.1 at z = 5.185 show the source to have a blueshifted northern component and a redshifted southern component, with a projected separation of 0.3 arcsec, or 2 kpc. We interpret these components as primordial galaxies that are merging to form a larger galaxy. We think it is the resulting merger-driven starburst that makes HDF850.1 an ultraluminous infrared galaxy, with an L(IR) of 1E13 Lsun. The observed line and continuum brightness temperatures and the constant line-to-continuum ratio across the source imply (1) high [C II] line optical depth, (2) a [C II] excitation temperature of the same order as the dust temperature, and (3) dust continuum emission that is nearly optically thick at 158 microns. These conclusions for HDF850.1 probably also apply to other high-redshift submillimeter galaxies and quasar hosts in which the [C II] 158 micron line has been detected, as indicated by their roughly constant [C II]-to-158 micron continuum ratios, in sharp contrast to the large dispersion in their [C II]-to-FIR luminosity ratios. In brightness temperature units, the [C II] line luminosity is about the same as the predicted CO(1-0) luminosity, implying that the [C II] line can also be used to estimate the molecular gas mass, with the same assumptions as for CO.Comment: Accepted by Astronomy and Astrophysic

    School Finance Reforms, Tax Limits, and Student Performance: Do Reforms Level Up or Dumb Down?

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    During the late 1970s and early 1980s, a majority of states substantially changed the ways in which schools were funded, either directly through court- or legislatively mandated school finance reform, or indirectly through tax and expenditure limits. To date, there have been few academic attempts to gauge the effects of these policy changes on actual outcomes of education. This paper is an attempt to fill this gap in the literature. We find compelling evidence that the imposition of tax or expenditure limits on local governments in a state results in a significant reduction in the mean for that state of student performance on standardized tests of mathematics skills. We also find that finance reforms in response to court mandates do not result in significant changes in either the mean level or the distribution of student performance on standardized tests of reading and mathematics. In addition, substantial finance reforms that are not legislative responses to explicit court mandates generally result in increases in mean student performance. Further, in those states that have implemented finance reforms of this type, the test performance of students residing in localities in which local revenues formed smaller shares of total revenue prior to the reforms improve relative to others after the reforms are implemented.

    Atomic carbon at redshift ~2.5

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    Using the IRAM 30m telescope we detected the lower fine structure line of neutral carbon towards three high--redshift sources: IRAS FSC10214 (z=2.3), SMMJ14011+0252 (z=2.5) and H1413+117 (Cloverleaf quasar, z=2.5). SMMJ14011+0252 is the first high--redshift, non--AGN source in which CI has been detected. The CI(1-0) line from FSC10214 is almost an order of magnitude weaker than previously claimed, while our detection in the Cloverleaf is in good agreement with earlier observations. The CI(1-0) linewidths are similar to the CO widths, indicating that both lines trace similar regions of molecular gas on galactic scales. Derived CI masses for all three objects are of order few 10^7 solar masses and the implied CI(1-0)/CO(3-2) line luminosity ratio is about 0.2. This number is similar to values found in local galaxies. We derive a CI abundance of 5x10^{-5} which implies significant metal enrichment of the cold molecular gas at redshifts 2.5 (age of the universe 2.7 Gyr). We conclude that the physical properties of systems at large lookback times are similar to today's starburst/AGN environments.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figures; accepted by A&

    Mafic alkaline metasomatism in the lithosphere underneath East Serbia: evidence from the study of xenoliths and the host alkali basalts

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    Effects of mafic alkaline metasomatism have been investigated by a combined study of the East Serbian mantle xenoliths and their host alkaline rocks. Fertile xenoliths and tiny mineral assemblages found in depleted xenoliths have been investigated. Fertile lithologies are represented by clinopyroxene (cpx)-rich lherzolite and spinel (sp)-rich olivine websterite containing Ti–Al-rich Cr-augite, Fe-rich olivine, Fe–Al-rich orthopyroxene and Al-rich spinel. Depleted xenoliths, which are the predominant lithology in the suite of East Serbian xenoliths, are harzburgite, cpx-poor lherzolite and rare Mg-rich dunite. They contain small-scale assemblages occurring as pocket-like, symplectitic or irregular, deformation-assisted accumulations of metasomatic phases, generally composed of Ti–Al- and incompatible element-rich Cr-diopside, Cr–Fe–Ti-rich spinel, altered glass, olivine, apatite, ilmenite, carbonate, feldspar, and a high-TiO2 (c. 11 wt%) phlogopite. The fertile xenoliths are too rich in Al, Ca and Fe to simply represent undepleted mantle. By contrast, their composition can be reproduced by the addition of 5–20 wt% of a basanitic melt to refractory mantle. However, textural relationships found in tiny mineral assemblages inside depleted xenoliths imply the following reaction: opx+sp1 (primary mantle Cr-spinel) ±phlogopite+Si-poor alkaline melt=Ti–Al-cpx+sp2 (metasomatic Ti-rich spinel)±ol±other minor phases. Inversion modelling, performed on the least contaminated and most isotopically uniform host basanites (87Sr/86Sr=c. 0.7031; 143Nd/144Nd=c. 0.5129), implies a source that was enriched in highly and moderately incompatible elements (c. 35–40× chondrite for U–Th–Nb–Ta, 2× chondrite for heavy rare earth elements (HREE), made up of clinopyroxene, carbonate (c. 5%), and traces of ilmenite (c. 1%) and apatite (c. 0.05%). A schematic model involves: first, percolation of CO2- and H2O-rich fluids and precipitation of metasomatic hydrous minerals; and, second, the subsequent breakdown of these hydrous minerals due to the further uplift of hot asthenospheric mantle. This model links intraplate alkaline magmatism to lithospheric mantle sources enriched by sublithospheric melts at some time in the past

    Petrogenetic processes in the ultramafic, alkaline and carbonatitic magmatism in the Kola Alkaline Province: a review

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    Igneous rocks of the Devonian Kola Alkaline Carbonatite Province (KACP) in NW Russia and eastern Finland can be classified into four groups: (a) primitive mantle-derived silica-undersaturated silicate magmas; (b) evolved alkaline and nepheline syenites; (c) cumulate rocks; (d) carbonatites and phoscorites, some of which may also be cumulates. There is no obvious age difference between these various groups, so all of the magma-types were formed at the same time in a relatively restricted area and must therefore be petrogenetically related. Both sodic and potassic varieties of primitive silicate magmas are present. On major element variation diagrams, the cumulate rocks plot as simple mixtures of their constituent minerals (olivine, clinopyroxene, calcite etc). There are complete compositional trends between carbonatites, phoscorites and silicate cumulates, which suggests that many carbonatites and phoscorites are also cumulates. CaO/Al2O3 ratios for ultramafic and mafic silicate rocks in dykes and pipes range up to 5, indicating a very small degree of melting of a carbonated mantle at depth. Damkjernites appear to be transitional to carbonatites. Trace element modelling indicates that all the mafic silicate magmas are related to small degrees of melting of a metasomatised garnet peridotite source. Similarities of the REE patterns and initial Sr and Nd isotope compositions for ultramafic alkaline silicate rocks and carbonatites indicate that there is a strong relationship between the two magma-types. There is also a strong petrogenetic link between carbonatites, kimberlites and alkaline ultramafic lamprophyres. Fractional crystallisation of olivine, diopside, melilite and nepheline gave rise to the evolved nepheline syenites, and formed the ultramafic cumulates. All magmas in the KACP appear to have originated in a single event, possibly triggered by the arrival of hot material (mantle plume?) beneath the Archaean/Proterozoic lithosphere of the northern Baltic Shield that had been recently metasomatised. Melting of the carbonated garnet peridotite mantle formed a spectrum of magmas including carbonatite, damkjernite, melilitite, melanephelinite and ultramafic lamprophyre. Pockets of phlogopite metasomatised lithospheric mantle also melted to form potassic magmas including kimberlite. Depth of melting, degree of melting and presence of metasomatic phases are probably the major factors controlling the precise composition of the primary melts formed

    The Scatter in the Relationship between Redshift and the Radio-to-Submm Spectral Index

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    We derive the scatter in the relationship between redshift and radio-to-submm spectral index, alpha^{350}_{1.4}, using the observed spectral energy distributions of 17 low redshift star forming galaxies. A mean galaxy model is derived, along with the rms scatter in alpha^{350}_{1.4}. The scatter is roughly constant with redshift. Constant rms scatter, combined with the flattening of the mean alpha^{350}_{1.4} -- z relationship with increasing redshift, leads to increasing uncertainty for redshift estimates at high redshifts. Normalizing by the dust temperature in the manner proposed by Blain decreases the scatter in alpha^{350}_{1.4} for most of the sample, but does not remove outliers, and free-free absorption at rest frequencies above 1.4 GHz is not likely to be a dominant cause for scatter in the alpha^{350}_{1.4} -- z relationship. We re-derive the cumulative redshift distribution of the 14 field galaxies in a recent submm and radio source sample of Smail et al.. The most likely median redshift for the distribution is 2.7, with a conservative lower limit of z = 2, as was also found by Smail et al. based on the original alpha^{350}_{1.4} -- z models. The normalization and shape of the redshift distribution for the faint submm sources are consistent with those expected for forming elliptical galaxies.Comment: Added Erratum, standard AAS LATEX forma
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