8 research outputs found

    Intersite effects in task-based fMRI: the fBIRN Traveling Subjects

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    Talk given during the "Harmonise This! Analyzing Diverse Neuroimaging Datasets" workshop at the 2015 Organization for Human Brain Mapping (OHBM) conference in Hawaii, 14-18 June

    Perfusion of the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) is correlated with anxiety levels.

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    <p>Significant correlations were found between anxiety levels and perfusion of the left (A) and right (B) basolateral amygdala (BLA), as defined using anatomical regions-of-interest. These findings were then confirmed in a voxel-wise, whole brain regression analysis (C). In C, the BLA regions-of-interest are outlined in blue; the voxel-level display threshold is p<.005 (showing only clusters surviving whole-brain correction, see Methods). Clusters that showed cluster-wise significance (p<.05, whole brain corrected) are reported in the text and in <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0097466#pone-0097466-t002" target="_blank">Table 2</a>. R, right.</p

    Functional connectivity between the BLA and mPFC is inversely correlated with BLA perfusion and anxiety levels.

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    <p>An average map of basolateral amygdala (BLA) functional connectivity is shown in A. A whole-brain voxel-wise regression revealed that the strength of connectivity between the BLA and mPFC was negatively correlated with both: anxiety levels (B, C) and BLA perfusion (D, E). In A, B, and D, voxels with positive connectivity with the BLA (A) or showing positive correlations between their connectivity with the BLA and anxiety levels (B) or BLA perfusion (D) are shown in warm colors; voxels with negative correlations are shown in cool colors. The scatter plots in C and E are derived from the accompanying voxel-wise regression maps shown in B and D and are presented for the purpose of illustrating the range of values only. Data are displayed at a threshold of p<.05. The clusters indicated with arrows in B and D met a cluster-wise correction (FWE, p<.05) within the ventral mPFC. The peaks of the clusters in B (4, 2, −7) and D (2, 4, −4) were localized to the posterior-most portion of the SGC (with both clusters extending into the hypothalamus) using two independent atlases (the Talairach and Tournoux Stereotaxic Atlas <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0097466#pone.0097466-Tailarach1" target="_blank">[46]</a> and the Wake Forrest University (WFU) PickAtlas <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0097466#pone.0097466-Maldjian1" target="_blank">[47]</a>; see Methods). Prior work further supports this localization; previously reported sites that have been localized to the SGC (BA25), as well as an architectonic mapping of BA25 <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0097466#pone.0097466-ngr1" target="_blank">[68]</a>, overlap with the two clusters reported here, with nearby peaks: 4, 2, −4 <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0097466#pone.0097466-Mayberg3" target="_blank">[69]</a>; −2, 6, −6 <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0097466#pone.0097466-Mayberg2" target="_blank">[8]</a>; −2, 8, −10 <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0097466#pone.0097466-Mayberg4" target="_blank">[70]</a>; −3, 9, −6 <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0097466#pone.0097466-Pizzagalli1" target="_blank">[71]</a>; −4, 9, −12 & 2, 11, −7 <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0097466#pone.0097466-Kumano1" target="_blank">[72]</a>; 0, 8, −16 <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0097466#pone.0097466-Nahas1" target="_blank">[73]</a>. BLA, basolateral amygdala; FC, functional connectivity; Hy, hypothalamus; SGC, subgenual cingulate gyrus; mPFC, medial prefrontal cortex.</p

    Perfusion of a distributed network of regions outside of the amygdala is also correlated with anxiety levels.

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    <p>A voxel-wise whole brain regression analysis revealed that, in addition to the basolateral amygdala (BLA), perfusion of the superior frontal gyri and posterior cingulate cortex (A), and anterior putamen (B), among other regions (see <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0097466#pone-0097466-t002" target="_blank">Table 2</a>), were significantly correlated with anxiety levels. Whole-brain corrected results (see Methods) are displayed here using a voxel-level threshold of p<.005. Clusters that showed cluster-wise significance (p<.05, whole brain corrected) are reported in the text and in <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0097466#pone-0097466-t002" target="_blank">Table 2</a>. R, right; PCC, posterior cingulate cortex; SFG, superior frontal gyri.</p

    Basolateral amygdala functional connectivity.

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    <p>Areas of the brain showing significant functional connectivity with the basolateral amygdala (BLA) are listed. Clusters that are unshaded are those with positive functional coupling with the BLA, whereas clusters that are shaded grey are those showing negative functional coupling (inverse or anti-correlations) with the BLA (following global mean regression). Sites of connectivity within or abutting the BLA are not listed because of the difficulty of interpreting these findings. Also see <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0097466#pone-0097466-g003" target="_blank">Figure 3</a>. BA = Brodmann Area; Hemi = hemisphere; Tal = Talaraich coordinates.</p

    Regions showing a correlation between perfusion and anxiety levels.

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    <p>Results of a whole-brain voxel-wise regression analysis of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) data, using anxiety levels as a regressor, are listed. Sites which showed a significant positive correlation between rCBF and anxiety levels are listed below. Also, see <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0097466#pone-0097466-g002" target="_blank">Figure 2</a>. BA = Brodmann Area; Hemi = hemisphere; Tal = Talaraich coordinates.</p

    Supplementary Material

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    This is the Supplementary Material associated with the paper "Joint analysis of cortical area and thickness as a replacement for the analysis of the volume of the cerebral cortex", published in Cerebral Cortex. A pre-print is on biorXiv: http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/074666. To open, download and untar the file, and then open the "index.html" in any web browser

    Neural mechanisms of symptom improvements in generalized anxiety disorder following mindfulness training.

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    <p>Mindfulness training aims to impact emotion regulation. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms can be successfully addressed through mindfulness-based interventions. This preliminary study is the first to investigate neural mechanisms of symptom improvements in GAD following mindfulness training. Furthermore, we compared brain activation between GAD patients and healthy participants at baseline. 26 patients with a current DSM-IV GAD diagnosis were randomized to an 8-week Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR, N = 15) or a stress management education (SME, N = 11) active control program. 26 healthy participants were included for baseline comparisons. BOLD response was assessed with fMRI during affect labeling of angry and neutral facial expressions. At baseline, GAD patients showed higher amygdala activation than healthy participants in response to neutral, but not angry faces, suggesting that ambiguous stimuli reveal stronger reactivity in GAD patients. In patients, amygdala activation in response to neutral faces decreased following both interventions. BOLD response in ventrolateral prefrontal regions (VLPFC) showed greater increase in MBSR than SME participants. Functional connectivity between amygdala and PFC regions increased significantly pre- to post-intervention within the MBSR, but not SME group. Both, change in VLPFC activation and amygdala-prefrontal connectivity were correlated with change in Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) scores, suggesting clinical relevance of these changes. Amygdala-prefrontal connectivity turned from negative coupling (typically seen in down-regulation of emotions), to positive coupling; potentially suggesting a unique mechanism of mindfulness. Findings suggest that in GAD, mindfulness training leads to changes in fronto-limbic areas crucial for the regulation of emotion; these changes correspond with reported symptom improvements.</p
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