410 research outputs found

    Spatially-Resolved Nonthermal Line Broadening During The Impulsive Phase of a Solar Flare

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    This paper presents a detailed study of excess line broadening in EUV emission lines during the impulsive phase of a C-class solar flare. In this work, which utilizes data from the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) onboard Hinode, the broadened line profiles were observed to be co-spatial with the two HXR footpoints as observed by RHESSI. By plotting the derived nonthermal velocity for each pixel within the Fe XV and Fe XVI rasters against its corresponding Doppler velocity a strong correlation (|r| > 0.59) was found between the two parameters for one of the footpoints. This suggested that the excess broadening at these temperatures is due to a superposition of flows (turbulence), presumably as a result of chromospheric evaporation due to nonthermal electrons. Also presented are diagnostics of electron densities using five pairs of density-sensitive line ratios. Density maps derived using the Mg XII and Si X line pairs showed no appreciable increase in electron density at the footpoints, while the Fe XII, Fe XIII, and Fe XIV line pairs revealed densities approaching 10^(11.5) cm^(-3). Using this information, the nonthermal velocities derived from the widths of the two Fe XIV lines were plotted against their corresponding density values derived from their ratio. This showed that pixels with large nonthermal velocities were associated with pixels of moderately higher densities. This suggests that nonthermal broadening at these temperatures may have been due to enhanced densities at the footpoints, although estimates of the amount of opacity broadening and pressure broadening appeared to be negligible.Comment: 11 pages, 10 figures. Accepted to Ap

    A Hot Microflare Observed With RHESSI and Hinode

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    RHESSI and Hinode observations of a GOES B-class flare are combined to investigate the origin of 15 MK plasma. The absence of any detectable hard X-ray emission coupled with weak blueshifted emission lines (indicating upward velocities averaging only 14 km/s) suggests that this was a result of direct heating in the corona, as opposed to nonthermal electron precipitation causing chromospheric evaporation. These findings are in agreement with a recent hydrodynamical simulation of microflare plasmas which found that higher temperatures can be attained when less energy is used to accelerate electrons out of the thermal distribution. In addition, unusual redshifts in the 2 MK Fe XV line (indicating downward velocities of 14 km/s) were observed cospatial with one of the flare ribbons during the event. Downflows of such high temperature plasma are not predicted by any common flare model.Comment: 6 pages, 4 figures, ApJL (Accepted

    Evidence of Explosive Evaporation in a Microflare Observed by Hinode/EIS

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    We present a detailed study of explosive chromospheric evaporation during a microflare which occurred on 2007 December 7 as observed with the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) onboard Hinode. We find temperature-dependent upflows for lines formed from 1.0 to 2.5 MK and downflows for lines formed from 0.05 to 0.63 MK in the impulsive phase of the flare. Both the line intensity and the nonthermal line width appear enhanced in most of the lines and are temporally correlated with the time when significant evaporation was observed. Our results are consistent with the numerical simulations of flare models, which take into account a strong nonthermal electron beam in producing the explosive chromospheric evaporation. The explosive evaporation observed in this microflare implies that the same dynamic processes may exist in events with very different magnitudes.Comment: 14 pages, 8 figures. Accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journa

    The Temperature Dependence of Solar Active Region Outflows

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    Spectroscopic observations with the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on Hinode have revealed large areas of high speed outflows at the periphery of many solar active regions. These outflows are of interest because they may connect to the heliosphere and contribute to the solar wind. In this Letter we use slit rasters from EIS in combination with narrow band slot imaging to study the temperature dependence of an active region outflow and show that it is more complicated than previously thought. Outflows are observed primarily in emission lines from Fe XI - Fe XV. Observations at lower temperatures (Si VII), in contrast, show bright fan-like structures that are dominated by downflows. The morphology of the outflows is also different than that of the fans. This suggests that the fan loops, which often show apparent outflows in imaging data, are contained on closed field lines and are not directly related to the active region outflows.Comment: Movies are available online at: http://tcrb.nrl.navy.mil/~hwarren/temp/papers/flow_temperatures/ To be submitted to ApJ
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