83 research outputs found

    Passage of radiation through wormholes

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    We investigate numerically the process of the passage of a radiation pulse through a wormhole and the subsequent evolution of the wormhole that is caused by the gravitational action of this pulse. The initial static wormhole is modeled by the spherically symmetrical Armendariz-Picon solution with zero mass. The radiation pulses are modeled by spherically symmetrical shells of self-gravitating massless scalar fields. We demonstrate that the compact signal propagates through the wormhole and investigate the dynamics of the fields in this process for both cases: collapse of the wormhole into the black hole and for the expanding wormhole.Comment: 18 Pages, 13 figures, minor typos corrected, updated reference

    Physics of the interior of a black hole with an exotic scalar matter

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    We use a numerical code to consider the nonlinear processes arising when a Reissner-Nordstrom black hole is irradiated by an exotic scalar field (modelled as a free massless scalar field with an opposite sign for its energy-momentum tensor). These processes are quite different from the processes arising in the case of the same black hole being irradiated by a pulse of a normal scalar field. In our case, we did not observe the creation of a spacelike strong singularity in the T-region of the space-time. We investigate the antifocusing effects in the gravity field of the exotic scalar field with the negative energy density and the evolution of the mass function. We demonstrate the process of vanishing of the black hole when it is irradiated by a strong pulse of an exotic scalar field.Comment: 16 pages, 16 figures. Text has been rewritten and restructured, Penrose diagrams have been added, appendix with convergence tests has been added. Co-author has been added. Conclusions are unchange

    Constraining Cluster Physics with the Shape of X-ray Clusters: Comparison of Local X-ray Clusters versus LCDM Clusters

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    Simulations of cluster formation have demonstrated that condensation of baryons into central galaxies during cluster formation can drive the shape of the gas distribution in galaxy clusters significantly rounder, even at radii as large as half of the virial radius. However, such simulations generally predict stellar fractions within cluster virial radii that are ~2 to 3 times larger than the stellar masses deduced from observations. In this work we compare ellipticity profiles of clusters simulated with and without baryonic cooling to the cluster ellipticity profiles derived from Chandra and ROSAT observations in an effort to constrain the fraction of gas that cools and condenses into the central galaxies within clusters. We find that the observed ellipticity profiles are fairly constant with radius, with an average ellipticity of 0.18 +/- 0.05. The observed ellipticity profiles are in good agreement with the predictions of non-radiative simulations. On the other hand, the ellipticity profiles of the clusters in simulations that include radiative cooling, star formation, and supernova feedback (but no AGN feedback) deviate significantly from the observed ellipticity profiles at all radii. The simulations with cooling overpredict (underpredict) ellipticity in the inner (outer) regions of galaxy clusters. By comparing the simulations with and without cooling, we show that the cooling of gas via cooling flows in the central regions of simulated clusters causes the gas distribution to be more oblate in the central regions, but makes the outer gas distribution more spherical. We find that late-time gas cooling and star formation are responsible for the significantly oblate gas distributions in cluster cores, but the gas shapes outside of cluster cores are set primarily by baryon dissipation at high redshift z > 2.Comment: 10 pages, 6 figures, matching the published version in ApJ. Corrected missing reference in the arxiv versio

    Formation of Galaxy Clusters

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    In this review, we describe our current understanding of cluster formation: from the general picture of collapse from initial density fluctuations in an expanding Universe to detailed simulations of cluster formation including the effects of galaxy formation. We outline both the areas in which highly accurate predictions of theoretical models can be obtained and areas where predictions are uncertain due to uncertain physics of galaxy formation and feedback. The former includes the description of the structural properties of the dark matter halos hosting cluster, their mass function and clustering properties. Their study provides a foundation for cosmological applications of clusters and for testing the fundamental assumptions of the standard model of structure formation. The latter includes the description of the total gas and stellar fractions, the thermodynamical and non-thermal processes in the intracluster plasma. Their study serves as a testing ground for galaxy formation models and plasma physics. In this context, we identify a suitable radial range where the observed thermal properties of the intra-cluster plasma exhibit the most regular behavior and thus can be used to define robust observational proxies for the total cluster mass. We put particular emphasis on examining assumptions and limitations of the widely used self-similar model of clusters. Finally, we discuss the formation of clusters in non-standard cosmological models, such as non-Gaussian models for the initial density field and models with modified gravity, along with prospects for testing these alternative scenarios with large cluster surveys in the near future.Comment: 66 pages, 17 figures, review to be published in 2012 Annual Reviews of Astronomy & Astrophysic

    Collapse Barriers and Halo Abundance: Testing the Excursion Set Ansatz

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    Our heuristic understanding of the abundance of dark matter halos centers around the concept of a density threshold, or "barrier", for gravitational collapse. If one adopts the ansatz that regions of the linearly evolved density field smoothed on mass scale M with an overdensity that exceeds the barrier will undergo gravitational collapse into halos of mass M, the corresponding abundance of such halos can be estimated simply as a fraction of the mass density satisfying the collapse criterion divided by the mass M. The key ingredient of this ansatz is therefore the functional form of the collapse barrier as a function of mass M or, equivalently, of the variance sigma^2(M). Several such barriers based on the spherical, Zel'dovich, and ellipsoidal collapse models have been extensively discussed. Using large scale cosmological simulations, we show that the relation between the linear overdensity and the mass variance for regions that collapse to form halos by the present epoch resembles expectations from dynamical models of ellipsoidal collapse. However, we also show that using such a collapse barrier with the excursion set ansatz predicts a halo mass function inconsistent with that measured directly in cosmological simulations. This inconsistency demonstrates a failure of the excursion set ansatz as a physical model for halo collapse. We discuss implications of our results for understanding the collapse epoch for halos as a function of mass, and avenues for improving consistency between analytical models for the collapse epoch and the results of cosmological simulations.Comment: Version accepted by ApJ, scheduled for May 2009, v696. High-res version available at http://kicp.uchicago.edu/~brant/astro-ph/excursion_set_ansatz/robertson_excursion_set_ansatz.pd

    Distorted 5-dimensional vacuum black hole

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    In this paper we study how the distortion generated by a static and neutral distribution of external matter affects a 5-dimensional Schwarzschild-Tangherlini black hole. A solution representing a particular class of such distorted black holes admits an RxU(1)xU(1) isometry group. We show that there exists a certain duality transformation between the black hole horizon and a stretched singularity surfaces. The space-time near the distorted black hole singularity has the same topology and Kasner exponents as those of a 5-dimensional Schwarzschild-Tangherlini black hole. We calculate the maximal proper time of free fall of a test particle from the distorted black hole horizon to its singularity and find that, depending on the distortion, it can be less, equal to, or greater than that of a Schwarzschild-Tangherlini black hole of the same horizon area. This implies that due to the distortion, the singularity of a Schwarzschild-Tangherlini black hole can come close to its horizon. A relation between the Kretschmann scalar calculated on the horizon of a 5-dimensional static, asymmetric, distorted black hole and the trace of the square of the Ricci tensor of the horizon surface is derived.Comment: 20 pages, 9 figure

    The Anisotropic Distribution of Galactic Satellites

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    We present a study of the spatial distribution of subhalos in galactic dark matter halos using dissipationless cosmological simulations of the concordance LCDM model. We find that subhalos are distributed anisotropically and are preferentially located along the major axes of the triaxial mass distributions of their hosts. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov probability for drawing our simulated subhalo sample from an isotropic distribution is P_KS \simeq 1.5 \times 10^{-4}. An isotropic distribution of subhalos is thus not the correct null hypothesis for testing the CDM paradigm. The nearly planar distribution of observed Milky Way (MW) satellites is marginally consistent (probability \simeq 0.02) with being drawn randomly from the subhalo distribution in our simulations. Furthermore, if we select the subhalos likely to be luminous, we find a distribution that is consistent with the observed MW satellites. In fact, we show that subsamples of the subhalo population with a centrally-concentrated radial distribution, similar to that of the MW dwarfs, typically exhibit a comparable degree of planarity. We explore the origin of the observed subhalo anisotropy and conclude that it is likely due to (1) preferential accretion of subhalos along filaments, often closely aligned with the major axis of the host halo, and (2) evolution of satellite orbits within the prolate, triaxial potentials typical of CDM halos. Agreement between predictions and observations requires the major axis of the outer dark matter halo of the Milky Way to be nearly perpendicular to the disk. We discuss possible observational tests of such disk-halo alignment with current large galaxy surveys.Comment: 14 pages (including appendix), 9 figures. Accepted for Publication in ApJ. Minor changes to reflect referee's comment

    Fundamental differences between SPH and grid methods

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    We have carried out a hydrodynamical code comparison study of interacting multiphase fluids. The two commonly used techniques of grid and smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) show striking differences in their ability to model processes that are fundamentally important across many areas of astrophysics. Whilst Eulerian grid based methods are able to resolve and treat important dynamical instabilities, such as Kelvin-Helmholtz or Rayleigh-Taylor, these processes are poorly or not at all resolved by existing SPH techniques. We show that the reason for this is that SPH, at least in its standard implementation, introduces spurious pressure forces on particles in regions where there are steep density gradients. This results in a boundary gap of the size of the SPH smoothing kernel over which information is not transferred.Comment: 15 pages, 13 figures, to be submitted to MNRAS. For high-resolution figures, please see http://www-theorie.physik.unizh.ch/~agertz
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