5 research outputs found

    Stevens-Johnson Syndrome From Combined Allopurinol and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: A Narrative Review

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    Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is a severe and potentially debilitating skin reaction frequently related to medication use. Allopurinol and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are commonly prescribed medications for prevalent health conditions worldwide, and their interaction associated with SJS warrants further investigation. A comprehensive literature search was performed to investigate cases as studies related to SJS occurring in patients with concomitant use of allopurinol and ACE inhibitors. We identified case reports and studies detailing hypersensitivity reactions, including SJS, attributed to a combination of allopurinol and ACE inhibitors. Despite the drug-drug interactions or lack thereof seen in patient populations, there is no definitive evidence of a pharmacokinetic interaction between allopurinol and ACE inhibitors. We were only able to find one case report specifically detailing SJS in a patient on combined ACE inhibitors and allopurinol. While the exact mechanism of the interaction is unclear, those reported cases of severe hypersensitivity reactions suggest a previous history of impaired renal function as a predisposing factor in the development of SJS. The potential risk of SJS with coadministration of ACE inhibitors and allopurinol is a drug-drug interaction that physicians should be aware of. This topic requires additional attention to determine if this drug combination should be avoided entirely in certain patients

    Osteoarthritis-Like Changes in Bardet–Biedl Syndrome Mutant Ciliopathy Mice (Bbs1M390R/M390R): Evidence for a Role of Primary Cilia in Cartilage Homeostasis and Regulation of Inflammation

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    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a debilitating inflammation related disease characterized by joint pain and effusion, loss of mobility, and deformity that may result in functional joint failure and significant impact on quality of life. Once thought of as a simple “wear and tear” disease, it is now widely recognized that OA has a considerable metabolic component and is related to chronic inflammation. Defects associated with primary cilia have been shown to be cause OA-like changes in Bardet–Biedl mice. We examined the role of dysfunctional primary cilia in OA in mice through the regulation of the previously identified degradative and pro-inflammatory molecular pathways common to OA. We observed an increase in the presence of pro-inflammatory markers TGFβ-1 and HTRA1 as well as cartilage destructive protease MMP-13 but a decrease in DDR-2. We observed a morphological difference in cartilage thickness in Bbs1M390R/M390R mice compared to wild type (WT). We did not observe any difference in OARSI or Mankin scores between WT and Bbs1M390R/M390R mice. Primary cilia appear to be involved in the upregulation of biomarkers, including pro-inflammatory markers common to OA
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