21 research outputs found

    Documentation As Meta-Level Activity

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    Today we live in an information society, which is to a large extent also a document society (Buckland, 2018). In our daily lives, we must cope with an ever-growing flood of different documents, keep track of them, pick out relevant content, and produce documents in suitable forms. In addition, tools based on artificial intelligence (AI) technology, such as ChatGPT[1], are making their way into the document world, challenging us with new affordances, and questions about how to deal with them and what changes this will bring. Existing documentation models such as the model of complementarity (N. W. Lund, 2004), the ontology of human expression (Olsen et al., 2012), and the document phenomenology (Gorichanaz & Latham, 2016) contain valuable indications from which we can learn a lot about the process of document production. However, current models are missing out on the relations between the variables of the greater system in which they are embedded such as documents as instruments, the community, rules, and the division of labor, as well as the subject\u27s actions, motives, and greater goals in the documentation activity. This conceptual paper presents the model of documentation activity, which on the one hand can unite and expand existing models in the field of document theory, and on the other hand provide a common crystallization point for practitioners and scholars from related fields to analyze the documentation activity within a dynamic socio-technical system. The model of documentation activity is developed along existing document theory concepts using activity theory (AT) (Engeström, 1987) as a framework. [1] ChatGPT is a system for natural language processing (NLP) based on deep learning technology which was developed by the company OpenAI. ChatGPT can generate human-like conversations by understanding the context of a conversation and generating appropriate responses. (Deng & Lin, 2023)

    Predicting the risk of falling – efficacy of a risk assessment tool compared to nurses' judgement: a cluster-randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN37794278]

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    BACKGROUND: Older people living in nursing homes are at high risk of falling because of their general frailty and multiple pathologies. Prediction of falls might lead to an efficient allocation of preventive measures. Although several tools to assess the risk of falling have been developed, their impact on clinically relevant endpoints has never been investigated. The present study will evaluate the clinical efficacy and consequences of different fall risk assessment strategies. STUDY DESIGN: Cluster-randomised controlled trial with nursing home clusters randomised either to the use of a standard fall risk assessment tool alongside nurses' clinical judgement or to nurses' clinical judgement alone. Standard care of all clusters will be optimised by structured education on best evidence strategies to prevent falls and fall related injuries. 54 nursing home clusters including 1,080 residents will be recruited. Residents must be ≥ 70 years, not bedridden, and living in the nursing home for more than three months. The primary endpoint is the number of participants with at least one fall at 12 months. Secondary outcome measures are the number of falls, clinical consequences including side effects of the two risk assessment strategies. Other measures are fall related injuries, hospital admissions and consultations with a physician, and costs

    Psychotropic medication use among nursing home residents in Austria: a cross-sectional study

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>The use of psychotropic medications and their adverse effects in frail elderly has been debated extensively. However, recent data from European studies show that these drugs are still frequently prescribed in nursing home residents. In Austria, prevalence data are lacking. We aimed to determine the prevalence of psychotropic medication prescription in Austrian nursing homes and to explore characteristics associated with their prescription.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Cross-sectional study and association analysis in forty-eight out of 50 nursing homes with 1844 out of a total of 2005 residents in a defined urban-rural region in Austria. Prescribed medication was retrieved from residents' charts. Psychotropic medications were coded according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification 2005. Cluster-adjusted multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate institutional and residents' characteristics associated with prescription.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Residents' mean age was 81; 73% of residents were female. Mean cluster-adjusted prevalence of residents with at least one psychotropic medication was 74.6% (95% confidence interval, CI, 72.0–77.2). A total of 45.9% (95% CI 42.7–49.1) had at least one prescription of an antipsychotic medication. Two third of all antipsychotic medications were prescribed for bedtime use only. Anxiolytics were prescribed in 22.2% (95% CI 20.0–24.5), hypnotics in 13.3% (95% CI 11.3–15.4), and antidepressants in 36.8% (95% CI 34.1–39.6) of residents. None of the institutional characteristics and only few residents' characteristics were significantly associated with psychotropic medication prescription. Permanent restlessness was positively associated with psychotropic medication prescription (AOR 1.54, 95% CI 1.32–1.79) whereas cognitive impairment was inversely associated (AOR 0.70, 95% CI 0.56–0.88).</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Frequency of psychotropic medication prescription is high in Austrian nursing homes compared to recent published data from other countries. Interventions should aim at reduction and optimisation of prescriptions.</p

    Khresmoi Professional: Multilingual Semantic Search for Medical Professionals

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    There is increasing interest in and need for innovative solutions to medical search. In this paper we present the EU funded Khresmoi medical search and access system, currently in year 3 of 4 of development across 12 partners . The Khresmoi system uses a component based architecture housed in the cloud to allow for the development of several innovative applications to support target users medical information needs. The Khresmoi search systems based on this architecture have been designed to support the multilingual and multimod al information needs of three target groups the general public, general practitioners and consultant radiologists. In this paper we focus on the presentation of the systems to support the latter two groups using semantic, multilingual text and image based (including 2D and 3D radiology images) search

    Khresmoi: Multimodal Multilingual Medical Information Search

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    Khresmoi is a European Integrated Project developing a multilingual multimodal search and access system for medical and health information and documents. It addresses the challenges of searching through huge amounts of medical data, including general medical information available on the internet, as well as radiology data in hospital archives. It is developing novel semantic search and visual search techniques for the medical domain. At the MIE Village of the Future, Khresmoi proposes to have two interactive demonstrations of the system under development, as well as an overview oral presentation and potentially some poster presentation

    Khresmoi – multilingual semantic search of medical text and images

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    The Khresmoi project is developing a multilingual multimodal search and access system for medical and health information and documents. This scientific demonstration presents the current state of the Khresmoi integrated system, which includes components for text and image annotation, semantic search, search by image similarity and machine translation. The flexibility in adapting the system to varying requirements for different types of medical information search is demonstrated through two instantiations of the system, one aimed at medical professionals in general and the second aimed at radiologists. The key innovations of the Khresmoi system are the integration of multiple software components in a flexible scalable medical search system, the use of annotation cycles including manual correction to improve semantic search, and the possibility to do large scale visual similarity search on 2D and 3D (CT, MR) medical images

    Deliberations of the expert advisory council on innovation fund applications

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    The Innovation Fund provides incentives for the development and testing of healthcare innovations in the area of the statutory health insurance with the aim to improve the quality of care in Germany. Over a period of initially four years (2016-19), 300 million Euro will be allocated annually to projects on innovative forms of healthcare provision and health services research. Using a formalized procedure, the ten-member expert advisory board appointed by the German Federal Ministry of Health (BMG) assess all applications on the basis of various criteria for scientific quality, potential of innovation, relevance for health service delivery, and implementability. The present discussion paper sets out important considerations for submission and assessment and puts them up for discussion

    Geostationary Data Relay Satellites for Earth Observation: The GeReLEO Concept

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    From a GEO satellite’s perspective a LEO satellite is visible on more than half of its orbit. Albeit the free-space loss of an inter-satellite link is much higher than the one of a direct ground link, considerable data rates and download volumes per overflight can be achieved. In this paper we describe an integrated approach for a data relay satellite system developed in the context of the GeReLEO research project. The system has been developed and optimized especially for small LEO satellites with very limited transmit power

    Blood Platelets in the Progression of Alzheimer’s Disease

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    <div><p>Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by neurotoxic amyloid-<i>ß</i> plaque formation in brain parenchyma and cerebral blood vessels known as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). Besides CAA, AD is strongly related to vascular diseases such as stroke and atherosclerosis. Cerebrovascular dysfunction occurs in AD patients leading to alterations in blood flow that might play an important role in AD pathology with neuronal loss and memory deficits. Platelets are the major players in hemostasis and thrombosis, but are also involved in neuroinflammatory diseases like AD. For many years, platelets were accepted as peripheral model to study the pathophysiology of AD because platelets display the enzymatic activities to generate amyloid-<i>ß (</i>A<i>ß)</i> peptides. In addition, platelets are considered to be a biomarker for early diagnosis of AD. Effects of <i>Aß</i> peptides on platelets and the impact of platelets in the progression of AD remained, however, ill-defined. The present study explored the cellular mechanisms triggered by A<i>ß</i> in platelets. Treatment of platelets with A<i>ß</i> led to platelet activation and enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and membrane scrambling, suggesting enhanced platelet apoptosis. More important, platelets modulate soluble A<i>ß</i> into fibrillar structures that were absorbed by apoptotic but not vital platelets. This together with enhanced platelet adhesion under flow <i>ex vivo</i> and <i>in vivo</i> and platelet accumulation at amyloid deposits of cerebral vessels of AD transgenic mice suggested that platelets are major contributors of CAA inducing platelet thrombus formation at vascular amyloid plaques leading to vessel occlusion critical for cerebrovascular events like stroke.</p></div

    Strongly enhanced platelet adhesion under flow conditions <i>ex vivo</i> and on the injured carotid artery upon A<i>ß</i> stimulation of platelets <i>in vivo</i>.

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    <p>(A) Representative phase contrast images show platelet adhesion on collagen under flow conditions at a shear rate of 1000 sec<sup>−1</sup> (upper panel) and 1700 sec<sup>−1</sup> (lower panel) are shown. Scale bar indicates 20 µm. Bar graphs depict mean values ±SEM of the number of adherent cells per visual field [212×229 µm]. The platelet agonist ADP served as positive control, (n = 5 per group), **p<0.01 and ***p<0.001. (B) Platelets adhere to immobilized A<i>ß</i> under static and flow conditions (shear rate 1700 sec<sup>−1</sup>). Coverslips coated with 250 µg/ml collagen and 1 mg/ml fibrinogen served as positive control. Representative phase contrast images are shown. (C) Representative images show platelet thrombus formation on collagen and on collagen/A<i>ß</i>, respectively, at a shear rate of 1000 sec<sup>−1</sup>. Scale bar indicates 20 µm. Bar graphs depict mean values ±SEM of surface coverage, n = 5 per group, *p<0.05 and ***p<0.001. (D) Platelet adhesion at the injured carotid artery 10 min after injury. DCF-labeled platelets of C57BL/6J mice were incubated with vehicle or 50 µg/ml A<i>ß</i> for 30 min and injected into a C57BL/6J recipient mouse. Scale bar 50 µm. (E) Bar graphs depict mean values ±SEM showing the number of firmly adherent platelets at the vessel wall per mm<sup>2</sup> after 5, 10 and 30 min after injury of seven independent experiments. *p<0.05, **p<0.01.</p
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