4,886 research outputs found

    Prevention of pressure build-up in electrochemical cells Patent

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    Preventing pressure buildup in electrochemical cells by reacting palladium oxide with evolved hydroge

    Restoration of eucalypt grassy woodland: effects of experimental interventions on ground-layer vegetation

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    We report on the effects of broad-scale restoration treatments on the ground layer of eucalypt grassy woodland in south-eastern Australia. The experiment was conducted in two conservation reserves from which livestock grazing had previously been removed. Changes in biomass, species diversity, ground-cover attributes and life-form were analysed over a 4-year period in relation to the following experimental interventions: (1) reduced kangaroo density, (2) addition of coarse woody debris and (3) fire (a single burn). Reducing kangaroo density doubled total biomass in one reserve, but no effects on exotic biomass, species counts or ground cover attributes were observed. Coarse woody debris also promoted biomass, particularly exotic annual forbs, as well as plant diversity in one of the reserves. The single burn reduced biomass, but changed little else. Overall, we found the main driver of change to be the favourable growth seasons that had followed a period of drought. This resulted in biomass increasing by 67%, (mostly owing to the growth of perennial native grasses), whereas overall native species counts increased by 18%, and exotic species declined by 20% over the 4-year observation period. Strategic management of grazing pressure, use of fire where biomass has accumulated and placement of coarse woody debris in areas of persistent erosion will contribute to improvements in soil and vegetation condition, and gains in biodiversity, in the future.Funding and in-kind logistic support for this project was provided by the ACT Government as part of an Australian Research Council Linkage Grant (LP0561817; LP110100126). Drafts of the manuscript were read by Saul Cunningham and Ben Macdonald

    Superscaling of non-quasielastic electron-nucleus scattering

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    The present study is focused on the superscaling behavior of electron-nucleus cross sections in the region lying above the quasielastic peak, especially the region dominated by electroexcitation of the Delta. Non-quasielastic cross sections are obtained from all available high-quality data for Carbon 12 by subtracting effective quasielastic cross sections based on the superscaling hypothesis. These residuals are then compared with results obtained within a scaling-based extension of the relativistic Fermi gas model, including an investigation of violations of scaling of the first kind in the region above the quasielastic peak. A way potentially to isolate effects related to meson-exchange currents by subtracting both impulsive quasielastic and impulsive inelastic contributions from the experimental cross sections is also presented.Comment: RevTeX, 34 pages including 11 figure

    Cross-sections of Andreev scattering by quantized vortex rings in 3He-B

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    We studied numerically the Andreev scattering cross-sections of three-dimensional isolated quantized vortex rings in superfluid 3He-B at ultra-low temperatures. We calculated the dependence of the cross-section on the ring's size and on the angle between the beam of incident thermal quasiparticle excitations and the direction of the ring's motion. We also introduced, and investigated numerically, the cross-section averaged over all possible orientations of the vortex ring; such a cross-section may be particularly relevant for the analysis of experimental data. We also analyzed the role of screening effects for Andreev reflection of quasiparticles by systems of vortex rings. Using the results obtained for isolated rings we found that the screening factor for a system of unlinked rings depends strongly on the average radius of the vortex ring, and that the screening effects increase with decreasing the rings' size.Comment: 11 pages, 8 figures ; submitted to Physical Review

    Quantum turbulence at finite temperature: the two-fluids cascade

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    To model isotropic homogeneous quantum turbulence in superfluid helium, we have performed Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of two fluids (the normal fluid and the superfluid) coupled by mutual friction. We have found evidence of strong locking of superfluid and normal fluid along the turbulent cascade, from the large scale structures where only one fluid is forced down to the vorticity structures at small scales. We have determined the residual slip velocity between the two fluids, and, for each fluid, the relative balance of inertial, viscous and friction forces along the scales. Our calculations show that the classical relation between energy injection and dissipation scale is not valid in quantum turbulence, but we have been able to derive a temperature--dependent superfluid analogous relation. Finally, we discuss our DNS results in terms of the current understanding of quantum turbulence, including the value of the effective kinematic viscosity

    Coherent cross-talk and parametric driving of matter-wave vortices

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    We show that the interaction between vortices and sound waves in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates can be elucidated in a double-well trap: with one vortex in each well, the sound emitted by each precessing vortex can be driven into the opposing vortex (if of the same polarity). This cross-talk leads to a periodic exchange of energy between the vortices which is long-range and highly efficient. The increase in vortex energy (obtained by numerical simulations of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation) is significant and experimentally observable as a migration of the vortex to higher density over just a few precession periods. Similar effects can be controllably engineered by introducing a precessing localised obstacle into one well as an artificial generator of sound, thereby demonstrating the parametric driving of energy into a vortex.Comment: 12 pages, 13 figure

    Hysteresis effects in rotating Bose-Einstein condensates

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    We study the formation of vortices in a dilute Bose-Einstein condensate confined in a rotating anisotropic trap. We find that the number of vortices and angular momentum attained by the condensate depends upon the rotation history of the trap and on the number of vortices present in the condensate initially. A simplified model based on hydrodynamic equations is developed, and used to explain this effect in terms of a shift in the resonance frequency of the quadrupole mode of the condensate in the presence of a vortex lattice. Differences between the spin-up and spin-down response of the condensate are found, demonstrating hysteresis phenomena in this system.Comment: 16 pages, 7 figures; revised after referees' report

    Direct measurement of quantum phase gradients in superfluid 4He flow

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    We report a new kind of experiment in which we generate a known superfluid velocity in a straight tube and directly determine the phase difference across the tube's ends using a superfluid matter wave interferometer. By so doing, we quantitatively verify the relation between the superfluid velocity and the phase gradient of the condensate macroscopic wave function. Within the systematic error of the measurement (~10%) we find v_s=(hbar/m_4)*(grad phi)

    Modeling Solar Lyman Alpha Irradiance

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    Solar Lyman alpha irradiance is estimated from various solar indices using linear regression analyses. Models developed with multiple linear regression analysis, including daily values and 81-day running means of solar indices, predict reasonably well both the short- and long-term variations observed in Lyman alpha. It is shown that the full disk equivalent width of the He line at 1083 nm offers the best proxy for Lyman alpha, and that the total irradiance corrected for sunspot effect also has a high correlation with Lyman alpha

    Ballistic propagation of thermal excitations near a vortex in superfluid He3-B

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    Andreev scattering of thermal excitations is a powerful tool for studying quantized vortices and turbulence in superfluid He3-B at very low temperatures. We write Hamilton's equations for a quasiparticle in the presence of a vortex line, determine its trajectory, and find under wich conditions it is Andreev reflected. To make contact with experiments, we generalize our results to the Onsager vortex gas, and find values of the intervortex spacing in agreement with less rigorous estimates
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