4,967 research outputs found

    Early detection of a solar flare - A study of X-ray, extreme ultraviolet, H-alpha, and solar radio emission from solar flares

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    X ray, extreme ultraviolet, H alpha, and radio emission from solar flares evaluated for use in satellite flare alarm syste

    Dynamic Power Spectral Analysis of Solar Measurements from Photospheric, Chromospheric, and Coronal Sources

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    An important aspect in the power spectral analysis of solar variability is the quasistationary and quasiperiodic nature of solar periodicities. In other words, the frequency, phase, and amplitude of solar periodicities vary on time scales ranging from active region lifetimes to solar cycle time scales. Here, researchers employ a dynamic, or running, power spectral density analysis to determine many periodicities and their time-varying nature in the projected area of active sunspot groups (S sub act). The Solar Maximum Mission/Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor (SMM/ACRIM) total solar irradiance (S), the Nimbus-7 MgII center-to-wing ratio (R (MgII sub c/w)), the Ottawa 10.7 cm flux (F sub 10.7), and the GOES background x ray flux (X sub b) for the maximum, descending, and minimum portions of solar cycle 21 (i.e., 1980 to 1986) are used. The technique dramatically illustrates several previously unrecognized periodicities. For example, a relatively stable period at about 51 days has been found in those indices which are related to emerging magnetic fields. The majority of solar periodicities, particularly around 27, 150 and 300 days, are quasiperiodic because they vary in amplitude and frequency throughout the solar cycle. Finally, it is shown that there are clear differences between the power spectral densities of solar measurements from photospheric, chromospheric, and coronal sources

    NIMBUS-7 SBUV (Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet) observations of solar UV spectral irradiance variations caused by solar rotation and active-region evolution for the period November 7, 1978 - November 1, 1980

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    Observations of temporal variations of the solar UV spectral irradiance over several days to a few weeks in the 160-400 nm wavelength range are presented. Larger 28-day variations and a second episode of 13-day variations occurred during the second year of measurements. The thirteen day periodicity is not a harmonic of the 28-day periodicity. The 13-day periodicity dominates certain episodes of solar activity while others are dominated by 28-day periods accompanied by a week 14-day harmonic. Techniques for removing noise and long-term trends are described. Time series analysis results are presented for the Si II lines near 182 nm, the Al I continuum in the 190 nm to 205 nm range, the Mg I continuum in the 210 nm to 250 nm range, the MgII H & K lines at 280 nm, the Mg I line at 285 nm, and the Ca II K & H lines at 393 and 397 nm

    Vortex nucleation by collapsing bubbles in Bose-Einstein condensates

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    The nucleation of vortex rings accompanies the collapse of ultrasound bubbles in superfluids. Using the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for a uniform condensate we elucidate the various stages of the collapse of a stationary spherically symmetric bubble and establish conditions necessary for vortex nucleation. The minimum radius of the stationary bubble, whose collapse leads to vortex nucleation, was found to be about 28 healing lengths. The time after which the nucleation becomes possible is determined as a function of bubble's radius. We show that vortex nucleation takes place in moving bubbles of even smaller radius if the motion made them sufficiently oblate.Comment: 4 pages, 5 figure

    Restoration of eucalypt grassy woodland: effects of experimental interventions on ground-layer vegetation

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    We report on the effects of broad-scale restoration treatments on the ground layer of eucalypt grassy woodland in south-eastern Australia. The experiment was conducted in two conservation reserves from which livestock grazing had previously been removed. Changes in biomass, species diversity, ground-cover attributes and life-form were analysed over a 4-year period in relation to the following experimental interventions: (1) reduced kangaroo density, (2) addition of coarse woody debris and (3) fire (a single burn). Reducing kangaroo density doubled total biomass in one reserve, but no effects on exotic biomass, species counts or ground cover attributes were observed. Coarse woody debris also promoted biomass, particularly exotic annual forbs, as well as plant diversity in one of the reserves. The single burn reduced biomass, but changed little else. Overall, we found the main driver of change to be the favourable growth seasons that had followed a period of drought. This resulted in biomass increasing by 67%, (mostly owing to the growth of perennial native grasses), whereas overall native species counts increased by 18%, and exotic species declined by 20% over the 4-year observation period. Strategic management of grazing pressure, use of fire where biomass has accumulated and placement of coarse woody debris in areas of persistent erosion will contribute to improvements in soil and vegetation condition, and gains in biodiversity, in the future.Funding and in-kind logistic support for this project was provided by the ACT Government as part of an Australian Research Council Linkage Grant (LP0561817; LP110100126). Drafts of the manuscript were read by Saul Cunningham and Ben Macdonald

    Direct measurement of quantum phase gradients in superfluid 4He flow

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    We report a new kind of experiment in which we generate a known superfluid velocity in a straight tube and directly determine the phase difference across the tube's ends using a superfluid matter wave interferometer. By so doing, we quantitatively verify the relation between the superfluid velocity and the phase gradient of the condensate macroscopic wave function. Within the systematic error of the measurement (~10%) we find v_s=(hbar/m_4)*(grad phi)

    Time-Series Analysis of Super-Kamiokande Measurements of the Solar Neutrino Flux

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    The Super-Kamiokande Consortium has recently released data suitable for time-series analysis. The binning is highly regular: the power spectrum of the acquisition times has a huge peak (power S > 120) at the frequency (in cycles per year) 35.98 (period 10.15 days), where power measurements are such that the probability of obtaining a peak of strength S or more by chance at a specified frequency is exp(-S). This inevitably leads to severe aliasing of the power spectrum. The strongest peak in the range 0 - 100 in a power spectrum formed by a likelihood procedure is at 26.57 (period 13.75 days) with S = 11.26. For the range 0 - 40, the second-strongest peak is at 9.42 (period 38.82 days) with S = 7.3. Since 26.57 + 9.42 = 35.99, we conclude that the weaker peak at 9.42 is an alias of the stronger peak at 26.57. We note that 26.57 falls in the band 26.36 - 27.66, formed from twice the range of synodic rotation frequencies of an equatorial section of the Sun for normalized radius larger than 0.1. Oscillations at twice the rotation frequency, attributable to "m = 2" structures, are not uncommon in solar data. We find from the shuffle test that the probability of obtaining a peak of S = 11.26 or more by chance in this band is 0.1 %. This new result therefore supports at the 99.9% confidence level previous evidence, found in Homestake and GALLEX-GNO data, for rotational modulation of the solar neutrino flux. The frequency 25.57 points to a source of modulation at or near the tachocline.Comment: 15 pages, 8 figure

    Solar-terrestrial Predictions Proceedings. Volume 1: Prediction Group Reports

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    The current practice in solar terrestrial predictions is reviewed with emphasis of prediction, warning, and monitoring services. Topics covered include: ionosphere-reflected HF radio propagation; radiation hazards for manned space flights and high altitude and high latitude aircraft flights; and geomagnetic activity

    Extreme ultraviolet flashes of solar flares observed via sudden frequency deviations

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    High frequency sudden deviations caused by extreme ultraviolet flashes from solar flares in ionospher

    Vortex Nucleation Induced Phonon Radiation from a Moving Electron Bubble in Superfluid 4He

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    We construct an efficient zero-temperature semi-local density functional to dynamically simulate an electron bubble passing through superfluid 4He under various pressures and electric fields up to nanosecond timescale. Our simulated drift velocity can be quantitatively compared to experiments particularly when pressure approaches zero. We find that the high-speed bubble experiences remarkable expansion and deformation before vortex nucleation occurs. Accompanied by vortex-ring shedding, drastic surface vibration is generated leading to intense phonon radiation into the liquid. The amount of energy dissipated by these phonons is found to be greater than the amount carried away solely by the vortex rings. These results may enrich our understanding about the vortex nucleation induced energy dissipation in this fascinating system.Comment: 7 pages, 5 figure
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