194 research outputs found

    Degradable Microgel Wet-Strength Adhesives: A Route to Enhanced Paper Recycling

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    Demonstrated is a new approach to cellulose fiber-based materials that are strong when wet, yet can be recycled after exposure to a weak reducing agent. Poly­(<i>N</i>-isopropylacrylamide-<i>co</i>-acrylic acid) microgels were transformed into wet cellulose adhesives by incorporation of hydrazide groups that can form hydrazone linkages to oxidized cellulose. Reductant responsivity was obtained by introducing cleavable disulfide linkages, either in the chains tethering the adhesive hydrazide groups, or by using disulfide cross-links in the microgels. Both types of disulfide derivatives gave about 75% reduction in cellulose wet adhesion after exposure to a reductant. Truly sustainable wood-fiber replacements for plastic packaging must be insensitive to water while being fully recyclable; this work demonstrates two routes to reversible wet cellulose adhesives, facilitating recycling

    Investigating the underlying social psychology of the innovation adoption in container trucking industry

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    Most extant literature in the transportation industry views innovation adoption as a rational choice process conducted on a cost-benefit calculation basis. This restricts our understanding of innovation decisions made by individuals embedded in a social-economic context. By investigating the underlying social psychology of the innovation adoption in the Chinese container trucking industry, this paper aims to answer the question as to ‘why trucking operators postpone adopting the cargo-truck matching system during its early stage’. In order to achieve the research objective, a mixed methods research framework is proposed. First, we conduct four in-depth interviews using semi-structured questionnaires to investigate the contextualized behavior of individuals, based on which three hypotheses are developed. Second, based on the data collected from an online questionnaire survey covering 282 trucking operators in Ningbo, the proposed empirical hypotheses are tested using a discrete choice model. We find that risk tolerance positively moderates influence of the status quo on the innovation adoption decision, whilst the effect on it of service-orientation is negative

    Low-frequency still-air acoustic inertia of inclined circular aperture in an infinite flat plate of finite thickness

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    The acoustic inertia of the canonical configuration of inclined circular aperture(s) in a finite-thickness plate at the low frequency limit is investigated under the inviscid still-air condition. A hybrid approach combining modal expansion and boundary element method is applied to calculate the effective length of the aperture as a quantitative characterisation of its acoustic inertia. These calculations, covering different inclination angles up to 75°, are performed for a single isolated aperture with a selected range of plate thickness and the periodic aperture arrays of aligned and staggered arrangements with a selected range of aperture spacing respectively. The results are validated by the simulations carried out with the commercial software COMSOL. The parametric studies of geometric dimensions included in this work provide representative results for typical acoustic related engineering applications of finite-length inclined apertures. A link for access to the MATLAB programmes implementing the calculations is provided for interested readers. As an example of application, the hybrid method described in this work is used for the acoustic modelling of a representative multi-perforated liner studied in the literature for the problem of thermo-acoustic instability. The results compared well against those obtained from the Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations reported in the literature.</p

    Low-frequency acoustic radiation from a flanged circular pipe at an inclined angle

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    The generic problem of low-frequency acoustic radiation through quiescent air from a circular pipe that is inclined with respect to its exit flange is studied in this work. The exit flange is taken to extend as an infinite plane away from the pipe opening. The analysis implements a hybrid method that combines modal expansions with the boundary element method. The reflection coefficient and pipe end correction for Helmholtz numbers (based on the pipe radius) less than 2.5 are calculated for various inclination angles up to 75°. Calculations are validated using simulations from the finite-element solver of the commercial software package COMSOL. The reflection coefficient and end correction predictions agree closely with the validation simulations yet differ notably from the results available in the literature. The solution obtained from the hybrid method is subsequently used to analyse the acoustic field at the pipe exit and in the downstream space. The key aspects of the governing physics pertaining to practical engineering applications at low frequencies are captured in a low-order approximation, which significantly reduces the degrees of freedom of the problem and provides generally good estimates of the reflection coefficient and end correction, as well as the downstream acoustic field

    Representative Micron III Images with Micrographs of conventional Histopathological preparations.

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    <p>Colour fundus photo (A) and fluorescein angiogram (B) of a Brown Norway rat exhibiting 4 choroidal neovascular lesions generated by rupture of the Bruch’s membrane by laser. Fluorescein angiogram (B) taken at 10.2 seconds post intravenous injection, corresponding to peak CNV fluorescence. Corresponding choroidal flatmount image (C) of the same eye taken at 2 weeks post laser stained with Isolectin-IB4 conjugated with Alexa Fluor 488. *Scale bar represents 500μm and is applicable to Fig 3C only. Representative micrograph of haematoxylin and eosin stained section of (D) Chorio-Retinal Burn at 3 weeks post laser (E) Retina without laser treatment (F) CNV lesion at 3 weeks post laser (D) Classical fusiform shaped sub retinal neovascular lesions are observed in both treatment groups confirming CNV formation by Bruch’s Membrane rupture by laser. *Scale bar represents 100μm and is applicable to Fig 3D, 3E and 3F only. *(Vitr = Vitreous, GCL = Ganglion Cell Layer, IPL = Inner Plexiform Layer, INL = Inner Nuclear Layer, OPL = Outer Plexiform Layer, ONL = Outer Nuclear Layer, IS = Inner Segment, OS = Outer Segment, RPE = Retinal Pigment Epithelium, Chor. = Choroid)</p

    Fluorescein Administration Route CNV Intensity Comparison.

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    <p>CNV intensity analysis of unprocessed FFA images with fluorescein administration by intravenous (IV) and intraperitoneal (IP) injection. Each time point represents the mean grey value ± SD (n = 4). FFA images with IP fluorescein were taken at 1 frame/second for 120, and 1 frame/5 seconds thereafter up to 10 minutes post injection. IV fluorescein angiograms were taken at 30 frames/second for 120 seconds. Intensity data from 130–470 seconds not shown.</p

    Appearance and peak fluorescent intensity times post injection via alternate fluorescein administration routes.

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    <p>Note: Values represent average fluorescein appearance time/peak intensity in seconds ± standard deviation.</p><p>Appearance and peak fluorescent intensity times post injection via alternate fluorescein administration routes.</p

    Illustration of area and intensity assessment of CNV lesions in FFA and choroidal flatmount images including corresponding colour Ffundus and unmodified FFA.

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    <p>(A-C): Colour fundus, FFA and representative hyperfluorescent CNV lesion analysis by freehand selection tool in ImageJ under digital magnification of the green channel from a FFA image produced by the Micron III system. Native background fluorescence intensity avoiding choroidal vessels was measured within a defined annulus (green) around the lesion. (D-F): Corresponding images of lesion analysis for chorio-retinal burn. (G): Representative CNV lesion analysis by freehand selection tool in ImageJ of Isolectin GS-IB4-AF488 stained choroidal flatmount. *Note scale bar applicable to Fig 1G only.</p

    Table_1_Tinnitus-associated cognitive and psychological impairments: a comprehensive review meta-analysis.XLSX

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    BackgroundTinnitus is strongly associated with an increased risk of cognitive disabilities. The findings of this research will provide valuable support for future investigations aimed at determining the correlation between tinnitus and the risk of cognitive impairments.ObjectivesWe investigated the potential correlation between tinnitus and the risk of various cognitive impairments, such as dementia, compromised learning attention, anxiety, depression, and insomnia. The study examined this relationship collectively and by categorizing the data based on different age groups.MethodsWe compiled data from case–control studies and cohort studies obtained from reputable databases such as PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase. To minimize potential bias, two reviewers independently assessed the selected articles. After extracting the data, we calculated the pooled odds ratios (ORs) using a random-effects model.ResultsSeventeen relevant studies, comprising an adult population, were included in this analysis. Pooled estimated outcomes revealed a strong association between tinnitus and an elevated risk of dementia-compromised learning, auditory attention, anxiety, depression, and poor sleep quality (PConclusionTinnitus has the potential to increase the risk of cognitive impairments. Moreover, geriatric patients aged above 60 shows a higher susceptibility to developing cognitive disabilities compared to their younger counterparts.</p

    Image_1_Tinnitus-associated cognitive and psychological impairments: a comprehensive review meta-analysis.JPEG

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    BackgroundTinnitus is strongly associated with an increased risk of cognitive disabilities. The findings of this research will provide valuable support for future investigations aimed at determining the correlation between tinnitus and the risk of cognitive impairments.ObjectivesWe investigated the potential correlation between tinnitus and the risk of various cognitive impairments, such as dementia, compromised learning attention, anxiety, depression, and insomnia. The study examined this relationship collectively and by categorizing the data based on different age groups.MethodsWe compiled data from case–control studies and cohort studies obtained from reputable databases such as PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase. To minimize potential bias, two reviewers independently assessed the selected articles. After extracting the data, we calculated the pooled odds ratios (ORs) using a random-effects model.ResultsSeventeen relevant studies, comprising an adult population, were included in this analysis. Pooled estimated outcomes revealed a strong association between tinnitus and an elevated risk of dementia-compromised learning, auditory attention, anxiety, depression, and poor sleep quality (PConclusionTinnitus has the potential to increase the risk of cognitive impairments. Moreover, geriatric patients aged above 60 shows a higher susceptibility to developing cognitive disabilities compared to their younger counterparts.</p
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