171 research outputs found

    A Faster Triphosphorylation Ribozyme.

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    In support of the RNA world hypothesis, previous studies identified trimetaphosphate (Tmp) as a plausible energy source for RNA world organisms. In one of these studies, catalytic RNAs (ribozymes) that catalyze the triphosphorylation of RNA 5'-hydroxyl groups using Tmp were obtained by in vitro selection. One ribozyme (TPR1) was analyzed in more detail. TPR1 catalyzes the triphosphorylation reaction to a rate of 0.013 min-1 under selection conditions (50 mM Tmp, 100 mM MgCl2, 22¬įC). To identify a triphosphorylation ribozyme that catalyzes faster triphosphorylation, and possibly learn about its secondary structure TPR1 was subjected to a doped selection. The resulting ribozyme, TPR1e, contains seven mutations relative to TPR1, displays a previously unidentified duplex that constrains the ribozyme's structure, and reacts at a 24-fold faster rate than the parent ribozyme. Under optimal conditions (150 mM Tmp, 650 mM MgCl2, 40¬įC), the triphosphorylation rate of TRP1e reaches 6.8 min-1

    Physiological, haematological and performance characteristics of ultra endurance cyclists competing in the inaugural race around Ireland

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    Ultra-endurance events are a growing area within the sport of cycling. The Race Around Ireland (RAI) is a non-stop event where cyclists must complete the 2,170km route in under 96 hours. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological, haematological and performance characteristics of members of a 4 man team before, during, and after the RAI. Methods: Four trained male cyclists were tested on 2 separate occasions within a 14 day period, with the second bout of testing performed within 7 days of the start of the race, to determine baseline values. Each cyclist completed a maximal incremental test on an electromagnetically braked cycle ergometer, commencing at 100W and increasing in intensity by 50W every 3 minutes until volitional exhaustion. Heart rate, VO2, power output and blood lactate were measured during the test. Following a standardized recovery period, each cyclist then completed a 20 minute maximal performance test (MPT) designed to mimic the demands of the RAI. Baseline blood samples were taken prior to each testing session to facilitate a detailed haematological analysis. Blood samples were also taken before the start of the race, at set intervals during the race, as well as on the race completion. Subjects were also weighed and urine samples collected at the same time points in order to assess hydration status using urine specific gravity (Usg). Further testing was carried out 7 days (haematology), and 14 days (haematology and MPT) post race. Results: No significant differences were found between the MPT results pre and post race. Significant differences were found for white blood cells (WBC) and granulocyte count (p<0.01), haematocrit, haemoglobin, lymphocytes, and red blood cells (p<0.05). No significant difference was observed for changes in body mass or Usg. Conclusions: Variations in WBC and other immune function markers showed initial decrease followed by a gradual elevation during the race. However this did not seem have an impact on the post race MPT. Although there appears to be a significant change in immune function during ultra endurance cycling, this may not lead to a subsequent performance decrement. However, analysis may be complicated by the specific race tactics adopted by the team during the race and the time course of post race assessment

    From correlation functions to scattering amplitudes

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    We study the correlators of half-BPS protected operators in N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory, in the limit where the positions of the adjacent operators become light-like separated. We compute the loop corrections by means of Lagrangian insertions. The divergences resulting from the light-cone limit are regularized by changing the dimension of the integration measure over the insertion points. Switching from coordinates to dual momenta, we show that the logarithm of the correlator is identical with twice the logarithm of the matching MHV gluon scattering amplitude. We present a number of examples of this new relation, at one and two loops.Comment: typos corrected, references adde

    Effects of temperature on thick branes and the fermion (quasi-)localization

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    Following Campos's work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 141602 (2002)], we investigate the effects of temperature on flat, de Sitter (dS), and anti-de Following Campos's work [Phys. Rev. Lett. \textbf{88}, 141602 (2002)], we investigate the effects of temperature on flat, de Sitter (dS), and anti-de Sitter (AdS) thick branes in five-dimensional (5D) warped spacetime, and on the fermion (quasi-)localization. First, in the case of flat brane, when the critical temperature reaches, the solution of the background scalar field and the warp factor is not unique. So the thickness of the flat thick brane is uncertain at the critical value of the temperature parameter, which is found to be lower than the one in flat 5D spacetime. The mass spectra of the fermion Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes are continuous, and there is a series of fermion resonances. The number and lifetime of the resonances are finite and increase with the temperature parameter, but the mass of the resonances decreases with the temperature parameter. Second, in the case of dS brane, we do not find such a critical value of the temperature parameter. The mass spectra of the fermion KK modes are also continuous, and there is a series of fermion resonances. The effects of temperature on resonance number, lifetime, and mass are the same with the case of flat brane. Last, in the case of AdS brane, {the critical value of the temperature parameter can less or greater than the one in the flat 5D spacetime.} The spectra of fermion KK modes are discrete, and the mass of fermion KK modes does not decrease monotonically with increasing temperature parameter.Comment: 24 pages, 15 figures, published versio

    From correlation functions to Wilson loops

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    We start with an n-point correlation function in a conformal gauge theory. We show that a special limit produces a polygonal Wilson loop with nn sides. The limit takes the nn points towards the vertices of a null polygonal Wilson loop such that successive distances xi,i+12‚Üí0x^2_{i,i+1} \to 0. This produces a fast moving particle that generates a "frame" for the Wilson loop. We explain in detail how the limit is approached, including some subtle effects from the propagation of a fast moving particle in the full interacting theory. We perform perturbative checks by doing explicit computations in N=4 super-Yang-Mills.Comment: 37 pages, 10 figures; typos corrected, references adde

    Genome-wide interaction study of a proxy for stress-sensitivity and its prediction of major depressive disorder

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    Individual response to stress is correlated with neuroticism and is an important predictor of both neuroticism and the onset of major depressive disorder (MDD). Identification of the genetics underpinning individual differences in response to negative events (stress-sensitivity) may improve our understanding of the molecular pathways involved, and its association with stress-related illnesses. We sought to generate a proxy for stress-sensitivity through modelling the interaction between SNP allele and MDD status on neuroticism score in order to identify genetic variants that contribute to the higher neuroticism seen in individuals with a lifetime diagnosis of depression compared to unaffected individuals. Meta-analysis of genome-wide interaction studies (GWIS) in UK Biobank (N = 23,092) and Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (N = 7,155) identified no genome-wide significance SNP interactions. However, gene-based tests identified a genome-wide significant gene, ZNF366, a negative regulator of glucocorticoid receptor function implicated in alcohol dependence (p = 1.48x10-7; Bonferroni-corrected significance threshold p < 2.79x10-6). Using summary statistics from the stress-sensitivity term of the GWIS, SNP heritability for stress-sensitivity was estimated at 5.0%. In models fitting polygenic risk scores of both MDD and neuroticism derived from independent GWAS, we show that polygenic risk scores derived from the UK Biobank stress-sensitivity GWIS significantly improved the prediction of MDD in Generation Scotland. This study may improve interpretation of larger genome-wide association studies of MDD and other stress-related illnesses, and the understanding of the etiological mechanisms underpinning stress-sensitivity

    The First Post-Kepler Brightness Dips of KIC 8462852

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    We present a photometric detection of the first brightness dips of the unique variable star KIC 8462852 since the end of the Kepler space mission in 2013 May. Our regular photometric surveillance started in October 2015, and a sequence of dipping began in 2017 May continuing on through the end of 2017, when the star was no longer visible from Earth. We distinguish four main 1-2.5% dips, named "Elsie," "Celeste," "Skara Brae," and "Angkor", which persist on timescales from several days to weeks. Our main results so far are: (i) there are no apparent changes of the stellar spectrum or polarization during the dips; (ii) the multiband photometry of the dips shows differential reddening favoring non-grey extinction. Therefore, our data are inconsistent with dip models that invoke optically thick material, but rather they are in-line with predictions for an occulter consisting primarily of ordinary dust, where much of the material must be optically thin with a size scale <<1um, and may also be consistent with models invoking variations intrinsic to the stellar photosphere. Notably, our data do not place constraints on the color of the longer-term "secular" dimming, which may be caused by independent processes, or probe different regimes of a single process

    QCD and strongly coupled gauge theories : challenges and perspectives

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    We highlight the progress, current status, and open challenges of QCD-driven physics, in theory and in experiment. We discuss how the strong interaction is intimately connected to a broad sweep of physical problems, in settings ranging from astrophysics and cosmology to strongly coupled, complex systems in particle and condensed-matter physics, as well as to searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. We also discuss how success in describing the strong interaction impacts other fields, and, in turn, how such subjects can impact studies of the strong interaction. In the course of the work we offer a perspective on the many research streams which flow into and out of QCD, as well as a vision for future developments.Peer reviewe
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