220 research outputs found

    Relative velocity of dark matter and barions in clusters of galaxies and measurements of their peculiar velocities

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    The increasing sensitivity of current experiments, which nowadays routinely measure the thermal SZ effect within galaxy clusters, provide the hope that peculiar velocities of individual clusters of galaxies will be measured rather soon using the kinematic SZ effect. Also next generation of X-ray telescopes with microcalorimeters, promise first detections of the motion of the intra cluster medium (ICM) within clusters. We used a large set of cosmological, hydrodynamical simulations, which cover very large cosmological volume, hosting a large number of rich clusters of galaxies, as well as moderate volumes where the internal structures of individual galaxy clusters can be resolved with very high resolution to investigate, how the presence of baryons and their associated physical processes like cooling and star-formation are affecting the systematic difference between mass averaged velocities of dark matter and the ICM inside a cluster. We, for the first time, quantify the peculiar motion of galaxy clusters as function of the large scale environment. We also demonstrate that especially in very massive systems, the relative velocity of the ICM compared to the cluster peculiar velocity add significant scatter onto the inferred peculiar velocity, especially when measurements are limited to the central regions of the cluster. Depending on the aperture used, this scatter varies between 50% and 20%, when going from the core (e.g. ten percent of the virial radius) to the full cluster (e.g. the virial radius).Comment: 17 pages, 18 figures, submitted to MNRA

    Adaptive gravitational softening in GADGET

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    Cosmological simulations of structure formation follow the collisionless evolution of dark matter starting from a nearly homogeneous field at early times down to the highly clustered configuration at redshift zero. The density field is sampled by a number of particles in number infinitely smaller than those believed to be its actual components and this limits the mass and spatial scales over which we can trust the results of a simulation. Softening of the gravitational force is introduced in collisionless simulations to limit the importance of close encounters between these particles. The scale of softening is generally fixed and chosen as a compromise between the need for high spatial resolution and the need to limit the particle noise. In the scenario of cosmological simulations, where the density field evolves to a highly inhomogeneous state, this compromise results in an appropriate choice only for a certain class of objects, the others being subject to either a biased or a noisy dynamical description. We have implemented adaptive gravitational softening lengths in the cosmological simulation code GADGET; the formalism allows the softening scale to vary in space and time according to the density of the environment, at the price of modifying the equation of motion for the particles in order to be consistent with the new dependencies introduced in the system's Lagrangian. We have applied the technique to a number of test cases and to a set of cosmological simulations of structure formation. We conclude that the use of adaptive softening enhances the clustering of particles at small scales, a result visible in the amplitude of the correlation function and in the inner profile of massive objects, thereby anticipating the results expected from much higher resolution simulations.Comment: 15 pages, 21 figures, 1 table. Accepted for publication in MNRA

    QSO-galaxy correlations due to weak lensing in arbitrary Friedmann-Lemaitre cosmologies

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    We calculate the angular cross-correlation function between background QSOs and foreground galaxies induced by the weak lensing effect of large-scale structures. Results are given for arbitrary Friedmann-Lemaitre cosmologies. The non-linear growth of density perturbations is included. Compared to the linear growth, the non-linear growth increases the correlation amplitude by about an order of magnitude in an Einstein-de Sitter universe, and by even more for lower Omega_0. The dependence of the correlation amplitude on the cosmological parameters strongly depends on the normalization of the power spectrum. The QSO-galaxy cross-correlation function is most sensitive to density structures on scales in the range (1-10) Mpc/h, where the normalization of the power spectrum to the observed cluster abundance appears most appropriate. In that case, the correlation strength changes by less than a factor of <~ 2 when Omega_0 varies between 0.3 and 1, quite independent of the value of Omega_Lambda. For Omega_0 <~ 0.3, the correlation strength increases with decreasing Omega_0, and it scales approximately linearly with the Hubble constant h.Comment: revised version, accepted by MNRA

    SZ effects in the Magneticum Pathfinder Simulation: Comparison with the Planck, SPT, and ACT results

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    We calculate the one-point probability density distribution functions (PDF) and the power spectra of the thermal and kinetic Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ and kSZ) effects and the mean Compton Y parameter using the Magneticum Pathfinder simulations, state-of-the-art cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of a large cosmological volume of (896 Mpc/h)^3. These simulations follow in detail the thermal and chemical evolution of the intracluster medium as well as the evolution of super-massive black holes and their associated feedback processes. We construct full-sky maps of tSZ and kSZ from the light-cones out to z=0.17, and one realization of 8.8x8.8 degree wide, deep light-cone out to z=5.2. The local universe at z<0.027 is simulated by a constrained realisation. The tail of the one-point PDF of tSZ from the deep light-cone follows a power-law shape with an index of -3.2. Once convolved with the effective beam of Planck, it agrees with the PDF measured by Planck. The predicted tSZ power spectrum agrees with that of the Planck data at all multipoles up to l~1000, once the calculations are scaled to the Planck 2015 cosmological parameters with \Omega_m=0.308 and \sigma_8=0.8149. Consistent with the results in the literature, however, we continue to find the tSZ power spectrum at l=3000 that is significantly larger than that estimated from the high-resolution ground-based data. The simulation predicts the mean fluctuating Compton Y value of =1.18x10^{-6} for \Omega_m=0.272 and \sigma_8=0.809. Nearly half (~ 5x10^{-7}) of the signal comes from halos below a virial mass of 10^{13}M_\odot/h. Scaling this to the Planck 2015 parameters, we find =1.57x10^{-6}. The PDF and the power spectrum of kSZ from our simulation agree broadly with the previous work.Comment: 16 pages, 10 figures, MNRAS in press, http://www.mageticum.or

    The temperature-mass relation in magnetized galaxy clusters

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    We use cosmological, magneto-hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy clusters to quantify the dynamical importance of magnetic fields in these clusters. The set-up of initial magnetic field strengths at high redshifts is chosen such that observed Faraday-rotation measurements in low-redshift clusters are well reproduced in the simulations. We compute the radial profiles of the intracluster gas temperature and of the thermal and magnetic pressure in a set of clusters simulated in the framework of an Einstein-de Sitter and a low-density, spatially-flat CDM cosmological model. We find that, for a realistic range of initial magnetic field strengths, the temperature of the intracluster gas changes by less than ≈5\approx5%.Comment: Accepted for publication in A&