35,978 research outputs found

    Are We Defended? Conflicting Representations of War in Pre-War France

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    This article examines contradictions in the way that war was represented to the French population in the interwar period. It argues that an ‘official’ representation of war gave an impression of France as a secure nation; people were discouraged from questioning the dominant military doctrine of defensive warfare, and were denied access to information to stifle potential criticism. ‘Unofficial’ representations, on the other hand, combined to create an image of a country whose security was increasingly threatened, particularly by a powerful eastern neighbour. During the 1930s, a feeling of imminent catastrophe was in the air, not only as a result of representations of war in film, press and advertising, but also fuelled by the ‘official’ literature of civil defence. The article draws on archival material from the towns of Boulogne-Billancourt and Brest to show that conflicting representations of war led to such confusion when war broke out in 1939 that people were unprepared, psychologically and physically, despite a near obsession with war over the past twenty years. Further, the strength of the representation of war as imminent catastrophe contributed to the state of mind which caused between eight and ten million citizens to flee the invading German army in panic in the summer of 1940

    Administering Unemployment Compensation Benefit Claims

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    Building An Adequate Pasture Program

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    The Gap in Standards for Special Libraries

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    THE EDUCATION JUSTICE: THE HONORABLE LEWIS FRANKLIN POWELL, JR.

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    The Honorable Lewis Franklin Powell, Jr. is “the education Justice” of the United States. During his tenure on the U.S. Supreme Court, from 1971 to 1987, Justice Powell authored at least twenty major opinions in education law, in addition to numerous significant concurrences and dissents. Just a sampling of Justice Powell\u27s majority opinions on education could form the bulk of an education law textbook recognizable by any American law student. This Article will explore some of Justice Powell\u27s major Supreme Court rulings in education law. It will also consider how these rulings may have related to aspects of Justice Powell\u27s life. In addition, the Article will briefly describe the Supreme Court\u27s current views on education and will attempt to describe how Justice Powell might analyze these issues today. At least one sitting Justice on the Supreme Court, Justice Sandra Day O\u27Connor, appears to have been influenced by Justice Powell\u27s views. Justice O\u27Connor occupies a similar ideological position on the Supreme Court as did Justice Powell, who wrote more than 250 majority opinions and whose “knack for being on the winning side never dropped below eighty per cent in any term, and often exceeded ninety per cent.

    Multimode delivery in the classroom

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    Because of recent technological advances, subtitling is now easier and more versatile than in the past. There is an increasing interest in the use of digitally-recorded audiovisual materials with both soundtrack and subtitles in the same language as a language-learning aid. The full potential of this is not currently attained because of poor-quality subtitling and less appropriate “caption” or “synopsis” rather than “transcription” subtitles. An adaptation of a format successful over two decades in Europe might be of value for South-East Asian language learners

    Permanent Pastures Treatment and Management

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